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Article

Feasibility of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9: A Psychometric Study

Department of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8635; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228635
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 17 November 2020 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
Hope is essential in rehabilitating persons with schizophrenia, though scales to measure hope are not appropriate for this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9 (SHS-9) using data from 83 people with schizophrenia in four mental health centers and 762 healthy persons from two universities in South Korea. The total SHS-9 score is calculated by adding all items’ scores and ranges from 0 to 18. The mean (standard deviation) SHS-9 score of the participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants was 11.53 (SD = 4.78) and 14.78 (SD = 3.19), respectively. Lower scores indicate a lower level of hope. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.92 with a four-week test-retest reliability of 0.89. Criterion-related construct validity was established by examining the correlation between the SHS-9 and the State-Trait Hope Inventory scores. Divergent validity was identified through a negative relationship of SHS-9 with the Beck Hopelessness Scale. In persons with schizophrenia and healthy college students, Bartlett’s test of sphericity yielded χ2 = 465.03 (p < 0.001) and χ2 = 2679.24 (p < 0.001) respectively. The values of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy were 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. The construct validity of the SHS-9 was confirmed through principal component analysis with extraction methods, which resulted in a one-factor solution, accounting for 61.83% of the total item variance. This study provides evidence for the validity and reliability of the SHS-9; therefore, it could be used to study the relationships between hope and other variables (e.g., depression and recovery) in persons with schizophrenia and measure the effect of psychosocial interventions on their hope. View Full-Text
Keywords: hope; mental health; reliability; validity; principal component analysis; schizophrenia hope; mental health; reliability; validity; principal component analysis; schizophrenia
MDPI and ACS Style

Choe, K.; Ryu, E.; Kim, S. Feasibility of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9: A Psychometric Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8635. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228635

AMA Style

Choe K, Ryu E, Kim S. Feasibility of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9: A Psychometric Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(22):8635. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228635

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choe, Kwisoon, Eunjung Ryu, and Sunghee Kim. 2020. "Feasibility of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9: A Psychometric Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 22: 8635. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228635

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