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Waterpipe Use among Adolescents in Germany: Prevalence, Associated Consumer Characteristics, and Trends (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents, KiGGS)

1
Institute of General Practice, Centre for Health and Society, Addiction Research and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
2
Robert Koch Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, General-Pape-Str. 62-66, 12101 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217740
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 20 October 2020 / Published: 22 October 2020
Waterpipe (WP) use is popular among youth worldwide, but epidemiological data from Germany are scarce. We aimed to describe prevalence rates of WP use (current, last 12 months, ever) and analysed correlates and trends among 11- to 17-year-olds in Germany. Analyses were based on data from the “German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents” study during 2014–2017 (n = 6599). Changes in WP use prevalence compared with 2009–2012 were used to describe trends. Associations with sociodemographic characteristics and cigarette smoking were assessed with multivariable logistic regression models. Prevalence of current WP use among adolescents was 8.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.5–9.6), use in the last 12 months was 19.7% (95% CI = 18.3–21.2), and ever use was 25.8% (95% CI = 24.2–27.5). High prevalence rates were particularly found among 16–17-year-olds. During 2009–2012, these prevalence rates were 9.0%, 18.5%, and 26.1%, respectively. WP use was associated with older age, male sex, migration background, lower educational level, and current smoking status. Among current WP users, 66.2% (95% CI = 60.0–71.9) identified themselves as non-smokers, and 38.1% (95% CI = 32.5–44.0) had used WP ≥ three times in the last month. WP consumption is popular among German youth, and prevalence rates have not changed over time. Specific prevention strategies to reduce harmful WP consumption among youth should be implemented. View Full-Text
Keywords: KiGGS; waterpipe; shisha; smoking; Germany; adolescents KiGGS; waterpipe; shisha; smoking; Germany; adolescents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klosterhalfen, S.; Kotz, D.; Kuntz, B.; Zeiher, J.; Starker, A. Waterpipe Use among Adolescents in Germany: Prevalence, Associated Consumer Characteristics, and Trends (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents, KiGGS). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7740. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217740

AMA Style

Klosterhalfen S, Kotz D, Kuntz B, Zeiher J, Starker A. Waterpipe Use among Adolescents in Germany: Prevalence, Associated Consumer Characteristics, and Trends (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents, KiGGS). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21):7740. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217740

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klosterhalfen, Stephanie; Kotz, Daniel; Kuntz, Benjamin; Zeiher, Johannes; Starker, Anne. 2020. "Waterpipe Use among Adolescents in Germany: Prevalence, Associated Consumer Characteristics, and Trends (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents, KiGGS)" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 21: 7740. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217740

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