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Review

Peer Support and Crisis-Focused Psychological Interventions Designed to Mitigate Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries among Public Safety and Frontline Healthcare Personnel: A Systematic Review

1
Faculty of Science, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC V2C 0C8, Canada
2
Office of Graduate Studies and Applied Research, Justice Institute of British Columbia, New Westminster, BC V3L 5T4, Canada
3
Department of Psychiatry, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
4
Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7645; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207645
Received: 14 August 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 18 October 2020 / Published: 20 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Safety Personnel: Mental Health and Well-Being)
Public safety personnel (PSP) and frontline healthcare professionals (FHP) are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs), and report increased rates of post-traumatic stress injuries (PTSIs). Despite widespread implementation and repeated calls for research, effectiveness evidence for organizational post-exposure PTSI mitigation services remains lacking. The current systematic review synthesized and appraised recent (2008–December 2019) empirical research from 22 electronic databases following a population–intervention–comparison–outcome framework. Eligible studies investigated the effectiveness of organizational peer support and crisis-focused psychological interventions designed to mitigate PTSIs among PSP, FHP, and other PPTE-exposed workers. The review included 14 eligible studies (n = 18,849 participants) that were synthesized with qualitative narrative analyses. The absence of pre–post-evaluations and the use of inconsistent outcome measures precluded quantitative meta-analysis. Thematic services included diverse programming for critical incident stress debriefing, critical incident stress management, peer support, psychological first aid, and trauma risk management. Designs included randomized control trials, retrospective cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies. Outcome measures included PPTE impacts, absenteeism, substance use, suicide rates, psychiatric symptoms, risk assessments, stigma, and global assessments of functioning. Quality assessment indicated limited strength of evidence and failures to control for pre-existing PTSIs, which would significantly bias program effectiveness evaluations for reducing PTSIs post-PPTE. View Full-Text
Keywords: post-traumatic stress injuries; mental health services; occupational health; CISD; CISM; systematic review post-traumatic stress injuries; mental health services; occupational health; CISD; CISM; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anderson, G.S.; Di Nota, P.M.; Groll, D.; Carleton, R.N. Peer Support and Crisis-Focused Psychological Interventions Designed to Mitigate Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries among Public Safety and Frontline Healthcare Personnel: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207645

AMA Style

Anderson GS, Di Nota PM, Groll D, Carleton RN. Peer Support and Crisis-Focused Psychological Interventions Designed to Mitigate Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries among Public Safety and Frontline Healthcare Personnel: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207645

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anderson, Gregory S., Paula M. Di Nota, Dianne Groll, and R. N. Carleton 2020. "Peer Support and Crisis-Focused Psychological Interventions Designed to Mitigate Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries among Public Safety and Frontline Healthcare Personnel: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 20: 7645. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207645

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