Time between Symptom Onset, Hospitalisation and Recovery or Death: Statistical Analysis of Belgian COVID-19 Patients
Data Science Institute (DSI), I-BioStat, Universiteit Hasselt, BE-3500 Hasselt, Belgium
Global Health Institute (GHI), University of Antwerp, BE-2000 Antwerp, Belgium
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Sciensano, BE-1050 Brussels, Belgium
Department and Laboratory of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven and KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, Box 7003 63, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Department of General Internal Medicine, Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University Hospital Antwerp, BE-2000 Antwerp, Belgium
Centre for Health Economics Research and Modelling of Infectious Diseases (CHERMID), Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), University of Antwerp, BE-2000 Antwerp, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Members of the Belgian Collaborative Group on COVID-19 Hospital Surveillance: Amir-Samy Aouachria, Kristof Bafort, Leïla Belkhir, Nathalie Bossuyt, Vincent Colombie, Nicolas Dauby, Paul De Munter, Jessika Deblonde, Didier Delmarcelle, Mélanie Delvallee, Rémy Demeester, Thierry Dugernier, Xavier Holemans, Benjamin Kerzmann, Pierre Yves Machurot, Philippe Minette, Jean-Marc Minon, Saphia Mokrane, Catherine Nachtergal, Séverine Noirhomme, Denis Piérard, Camelia Rossi, Carole Schirvel, Erica Sermijn, Frank Staelens, Filip Triest, Nina Van Goethem, Jens Van Praet, Anke Vanhoenacker, Sarah Cooreman, Elise Willems, Chloé Wyndham-Thomas (Appendix E).
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207560
Received: 27 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 October 2020 / Published: 17 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The COVID-19 Pandemic in Europe: Response to Challenges)
There are different patterns in the COVID-19 outbreak in the general population and amongst nursing home patients. We investigate the time from symptom onset to diagnosis and hospitalization or the length of stay (LoS) in the hospital, and whether there are differences in the population. Sciensano collected information on 14,618 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admissions from 114 Belgian hospitals between 14 March and 12 June 2020. The distributions of different event times for different patient groups are estimated accounting for interval censoring and right truncation of the time intervals. The time between symptom onset and hospitalization or diagnosis are similar, with median length between symptom onset and hospitalization ranging between 3 and 10.4 days, depending on the age of the patient (longest delay in age group 20–60 years) and whether or not the patient lives in a nursing home (additional 2 days for patients from nursing home). The median LoS in hospital varies between 3 and 10.4 days, with the LoS increasing with age. The hospital LoS for patients that recover is shorter for patients living in a nursing home, but the time to death is longer for these patients. Over the course of the first wave, the LoS has decreased.