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Open AccessArticle

Pilot Test on Pre-Swim Hygiene as a Factor Limiting Trihalomethane Precursors in Pool Water by Reducing Organic Matter in an Operational Facility

1
Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Energy, Institute of Environmental Engineering and Building Installations, Poznan University of Technology, 60965 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207547
Received: 13 September 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sport and Health)
Pool water must be constantly disinfected. Chlorine compounds used to disinfect pools react with organic substances such as sweat, urine, and personal care products introduced into pool water by users and results in the formation of disinfection byproducts. Trihalomethanes (THM), including chloroform and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, were quantified using a two-stage process: determining initial THM and chloroform levels; then searching for a cheap and easy-to-use method to improve water quality. The method proposed here to limit THM and DOC concentrations in water is controlled showering. At three swimming pool facilities, chloroform concentrations (13.8 ± 0.33 µg/L, 15.5 ± 0.44 µg/L, and 13.9 ± 0.06 µg/L) were below the threshold concentration of 30 μg/L. At a fourth facility, however, the chloroform concentration exceeded that threshold (40.7 ± 9.68 μg/L) when showering was not controlled. Those conditions improved after the introduction of a mandatory shower; concentrations of DOC, THMs, and chloroform all decreased. The chloroform concentration decreased to 29.4 ± 3.8 μg/L, the THM concentration was 31.3 ± 3.9 μg/L, and the DOC concentration was 6.09 ± 0.05 mg/L. Pilot tests were carried out at real facilities to determine whether the control of pre-swim hygiene was possible. The introduction of proper pre-swim hygiene limited the concentration of DOC in water and can lead to a healthier environment for everyone attending the swimming facility. View Full-Text
Keywords: trihalomethanes; THMs; swimming pool; pre-swim hygiene; pool water quality; disinfection byproducts trihalomethanes; THMs; swimming pool; pre-swim hygiene; pool water quality; disinfection byproducts
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Ratajczak, K.; Pobudkowska, A. Pilot Test on Pre-Swim Hygiene as a Factor Limiting Trihalomethane Precursors in Pool Water by Reducing Organic Matter in an Operational Facility. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7547.

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