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Open AccessArticle

Plasma MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TGF-β1 Responses to Exercise-Induced Muscle Injury

by Jooyoung Kim 1,2 and Joohyung Lee 3,*
1
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
Clinical Omics Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
3
Department of Sport, Health and Rehabilitation, College of Physical Education, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020566
Received: 5 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Overuse Injury on Musculoskeletal Tissues)
The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in response to strength recovery after eccentric exercise in humans. In this study, 16 healthy males participated and were divided into a faster recovery (FR) group (n = 8, >80% of baseline) and a slower recovery (SR) group (n = 8, <40% of baseline) on the basis of their recovery of maximal isometric strength (MIS) 96 h after eccentric exercise. For both groups, measurements were taken of muscle soreness, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TGF-β1 levels during the 24- to 96-h period after eccentric muscle contraction of their non-dominant elbow flexor. Muscle soreness (p < 0.001), CK activity (p < 0.01), and TGF-β1 level (p < 0.01) were significantly lower in the FR group compared with SR group, whereas no significant differences in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were found between the two groups (p > 0.05). These results suggest that scar tissue formation caused by the pro-fibrotic activity of growth factors such as TGF-β1 is a potential cause of delay in strength recovery after exercise-induced muscle injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: eccentric exercise; muscle injury; scar tissue; strength recovery; transforming growth factor-β1 eccentric exercise; muscle injury; scar tissue; strength recovery; transforming growth factor-β1
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Kim, J.; Lee, J. Plasma MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TGF-β1 Responses to Exercise-Induced Muscle Injury. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 566.

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