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Tools Used to Measure the Physical State of Women with Celiac Disease: A Review with a Systematic Approach

Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
Faculty of Sports, Catholic University of Murcia (UCAM), 30107 Murcia, Spain
School of Sport and Science, European University of Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain
IGOID Research Group, University of Castilla de la Mancha, 13071 Castilla la Mancha, Spain
Department of Education, Health Research Centre, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
LFE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 539;
Received: 16 November 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
Celiac disease (CD) is an immunological disorder that mainly affects the small intestine, generating an inflammatory process in response to the presence of gluten (a protein). Autoimmune diseases are part of a group of diseases that are difficult to diagnose without a specific protocol or consensus to detect them due to the number of symptoms and diseases with which it has a relationship. Therefore, the aim of this review was to analyze the diagnostic tools of CD used in middle-aged women, to compare the use and effectiveness of the different tools, and to propose a strategy for the use of the tools based on the results found in the literature. The present research followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. The search was conducted in the following databases: Scielo, PubMed, Web of Science, and Worldwide Science org. In the initial literature search, 2004 titles and relevant abstracts were found. Among them, 687 were duplicates, leaving 1130 articles. Based on the inclusion criteria, only 41 articles passed the selection process; 4 main types of analyses appear in the studies: blood tests, questionnaires, clinical history, and biopsy. It can be said that none of the analyses have a 100% reliability since most of them can present false negatives; therefore, the best way to diagnose celiac disease up to now is through a combination of different tests (Immunoglobulin A and small intestinal biopsy). View Full-Text
Keywords: diagnosis; diet; gluten; symptoms; women diagnosis; diet; gluten; symptoms; women
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Martínez-Rodríguez, A.; Loaiza-Martínez, D.A.; Sánchez-Sánchez, J.; Marcos-Pardo, P.J.; Prats, S.; Alacid, F.; Rubio-Arias, J.A. Tools Used to Measure the Physical State of Women with Celiac Disease: A Review with a Systematic Approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 539.

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