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Article

The German Multi-Dimensional Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Physical Education: Adaption and Validation in a Sample of Lower Track Secondary School Students

1
Professorship of Educational Science in Sport and Health, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Georg-Brauchle-Ring 62, 80992 Munich, Germany
2
Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Ujula 4 str., 51008 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197353
Received: 18 September 2020 / Revised: 3 October 2020 / Accepted: 6 October 2020 / Published: 8 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Self-Determination Theory in Physical Education)
Teachers’ autonomy support (AS) in physical education (PE) has positive effects on students’ affective and behavioral outcomes in PE. Even though the existence of three different dimensions of AS, namely cognitive, organizational and procedural AS has been suggested in educational settings, there is a lack of multidimensional instruments for the assessment of autonomy-supportive teaching in PE. The aim of this study was to validate the German Multi-Dimensional Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Physical Education (MD-PASS-PE). The sample comprised 1030 students of grades 6 through 10. Internal consistency was used to test the reliability of the assumed subscales. Factorial validity and measurement invariance across gender and age were examined by confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate criterion validity. The subscales exhibited acceptable to good internal consistency. The assumed three-factor structure was confirmed within a bi-factor model including a general factor and three specific group factors. Results strongly supported measurement invariance across gender while tentatively suggesting measurement invariance across age. Criterion validity was supported as the MD-PASS-PE explained 15% and 14% of the variance in the constructs of self-efficacy and intrinsic value, respectively. The German MD-PASS-PE provides PE teachers with deeper insights into their autonomy-supportive teaching behavior, helping them to support their students’ autonomy in a holistic way. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomy support; teaching; self-determination theory; questionnaire; self-efficacy; intrinsic value; bi-factor model; cognitive autonomy support; organizational autonomy support; procedural autonomy support autonomy support; teaching; self-determination theory; questionnaire; self-efficacy; intrinsic value; bi-factor model; cognitive autonomy support; organizational autonomy support; procedural autonomy support
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zimmermann, J.; Tilga, H.; Bachner, J.; Demetriou, Y. The German Multi-Dimensional Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Physical Education: Adaption and Validation in a Sample of Lower Track Secondary School Students. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7353. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197353

AMA Style

Zimmermann J, Tilga H, Bachner J, Demetriou Y. The German Multi-Dimensional Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Physical Education: Adaption and Validation in a Sample of Lower Track Secondary School Students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(19):7353. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197353

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zimmermann, Julia, Henri Tilga, Joachim Bachner, and Yolanda Demetriou. 2020. "The German Multi-Dimensional Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Physical Education: Adaption and Validation in a Sample of Lower Track Secondary School Students" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 19: 7353. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197353

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