Household CO2 Emissions: Current Status and Future Perspectives
2. Bibliometric Data and Methodology
3. Research Findings
3.1. Research Status
3.1.1. Overall Publishing Trend
3.1.2. Journal Outlets of the Paper
3.1.3. Contributions of Countries/Territories
3.1.4. Research Category
3.2. Research Review
3.2.1. Research Subjects
3.2.2. Research Methods
3.2.3. Influencing Factors of HCEs
- The demographic factors of HCEs are analyzed from the perspective of the population structure (such as the gender and age structure), population density (such as housing density and land density), and population quantity (such as household size, total population, and urbanization). The assessment of India by Rosenberg et al. showed that women were neither the only nor the main beneficiaries of electricity . Ota et al. noted that the aging of society and the population both decreased and increased Japan’s electricity demand but did not increase or decrease its gas demand, respectively . Chancel showed that baby boomers in France emitted more HCEs than other generations, while there were no generational effect in the USA . Yu et al. noted that as consumption patterns changed, the shift to smaller and aging households produced more household energy usage and carbon emissions . Different researchers have different views on this mechanism of HCEs.
- The income factors of HCEs include the income level (such as income per household, income per capita, and total income) and the consumption level (such as consumption ability and consumption tendency). Some results show that income and consumption play an important role in increasing HCEs. For example, an increase in per capita income resulted in increased HCEs in China [21,45,49], Ireland , France, and the USA . Wiedenhofer et al. and Wu et al. showed that there was inequality in household carbon emissions and household energy usage [25,38]. The C40 Cities indicates that global GHG emissions mainly come from urban consumption .
- The social factors of HCEs include economic development (such as total GDP and GDP per capita), the education level (such as the number of educated people and the number of universities), and lifestyle (such as culture and social awareness). Some arguments emphasize that more energy usage and related HCEs increase as the economy grows . Li et al. reviewed HCEs on a scale of social awareness and lifestyle, which play important roles in HCEs . Hafner et al. found that promoting behaviors such as social norms and habits could reduce HCEs from thermal energy demand . Sköld et al. found that people needed to carry out a moderate change in their lifestyle in regard to mobility, which could help to achieve a substantial reduction of 50% . Meangbua et al. showed that in Thailand, education positively impacted direct household CO2 requirements and negatively impacted indirect household CO2 requirements . Therefore, social factors have different impacts on HCEs.
- The technological factors of HCEs include emission intensity (such as HCEs per unit GDP and HCEs per unit consumption) and technology application (such as innovation, investment, and professional skill). Some have argued that higher living standards and technology levels led to higher per capita household energy consumption due to the potential rebound effect in energy efficiency and technology . However, others have disagreed . Asumadu-Sarkodie et al. argued that low carbon technology and cleaner energy transition could help to alleviate environmental pollution .
- The policy factors of HCEs include incentives (such as encouraging subsidy policies and political policies) and punitive policies (such as punitive subsidy policies and political policies). An analysis of the carbon footprint of the welfare state shows that green investments can reduce the carbon footprint with no unnecessary rebound effects . Zhang et al. summarized incentive measures and punitive measures for HCEs and found that different local environmental policies for HCEs in different countries, regions, provinces and cities were crucial for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction .
- The natural factors of HCEs include resources (such as water and land), the environment (such as the air quality index (AQI) and refuse disposal), climate (such as local climate and extreme climate), and energy (such as direct energy usage and indirect energy consumption). Studies on the impact of natural factors on HCEs have mainly focused on the relationships among HCEs and climate change. For example, Nie et al. found that the climate effects caused by abnormal temperatures led to income growth, which led to the use of more household energy consumption and the production of more HCEs .
4. Discussion and Conclusions
4.1. Future Perspectives and Discussion
4.1.1. More Micro-Level Research on HCEs and Further In-Depth Mining
4.1.2. Comparative Analysis of the Differences in HCEs Is a Future Direction
4.1.3. Emission Reduction Measures Need to Be Localized
- We find that research on HCEs has shown a rapid and active trend over the last 30 years that is highly consistent with national action on climate change and carbon emission reduction. After the Copenhagen Accord in 2009, the number of HCE papers published in 2010 increased significantly. From the perspective of country contributions, research on HCEs is mainly performed by China, the USA, and the UK. It is necessary to strengthen the emphasis on the quality and influence of papers by strengthening cooperation between China and other countries, especially the USA, the UK, and Australia.
- According to the keywords of international HCE papers, the main topics are relatively concentrated and focus on the subjects of energy efficiency, climate change, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption. Scholars first focused on the direct research field of HCEs, including direct energy usage from coal, gas, and oil, and then focused on the analysis of HCEs with regard to the influencing factors, difference comparisons, and mitigation measures.
- Three types of HCE research progress, including categories, mainstream assessments, and influencing factors, are analyzed. Research on HCEs from a micro level is an important direction that is crucial for sustainable development and low-carbon consumption. Regarding the influencing mechanisms of HCEs, six aspects are summarized which include demographic, income, social, technological, policy, and natural factors.
- With regard to the prospects for HCE research, we find that three aspects need to be considered. More micro-level research on HCEs needs to be conducted. On the one hand, the micro-level calculation model for HCEs needs to be optimized, and data need to be mined. On the other hand, a globally standardized rule for the HCE framework is necessary. Additionally, carbon emission reduction measures for HCEs need to be localized. National-, regional-, provincial-, and city-level, low-carbon emission reduction policies must be proposed, such as improving household energy efficiency, reducing the intensity of HCEs, and improving household consumption lifestyles, to provide a scientific basis for local climate change governance. Pioneering research on HCEs holds great significance for systematically understanding low-carbon policy, socioeconomic environmental impacts, and other aspects.
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|Rank||Journals||Number||Ratio (%)||Impact Factor||Country|
|2||Journal of Cleaner Production||186||8.00||7.246||UK|
|3||Energy and Buildings||151||6.49||4.867||Switzerland|
|10||Building and Environment||44||1.89||4.971||UK|
|11||Environmental Science & Technology||31||1.33||7.864||USA|
|12||Sustainable Cities and Society||30||1.29||5.268||Netherlands|
|13||Energy Conversion and Management||29||1.25||8.208||UK|
|14||Environmental Science and Pollution Research||28||1.20||3.056||Germany|
|15||Science of The Total Environment||27||1.16||6.551||Netherlands|
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Liu, L.; Qu, J.; Maraseni, T.N.; Niu, Y.; Zeng, J.; Zhang, L.; Xu, L. Household CO2 Emissions: Current Status and Future Perspectives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197077
Liu L, Qu J, Maraseni TN, Niu Y, Zeng J, Zhang L, Xu L. Household CO2 Emissions: Current Status and Future Perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(19):7077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197077Chicago/Turabian Style
Liu, Lina, Jiansheng Qu, Tek Narayan Maraseni, Yibo Niu, Jingjing Zeng, Lihua Zhang, and Li Xu. 2020. "Household CO2 Emissions: Current Status and Future Perspectives" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 19: 7077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197077