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Review

Spatiotemporal Distribution of Dengue and Chikungunya in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region: A Systematic Review

1
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe University, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2
Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, University of Antwerp, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
3
Department of Sociology, University of Antwerp, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
4
Health Research Section, Nepal Health Research Council, Ramshah Path, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
5
Unit Entomology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186656
Received: 9 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 12 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Zoonotic Diseases)
The risk of increasing dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK) epidemics impacts 240 million people, health systems, and the economy in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region. The aim of this systematic review is to monitor trends in the distribution and spread of DEN/CHIK over time and geographically for future reliable vector and disease control in the HKH region. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on the spatiotemporal distribution of DEN/CHIK in HKH published up to 23 January 2020, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. In total, we found 61 articles that focused on the spatial and temporal distribution of 72,715 DEN and 2334 CHIK cases in the HKH region from 1951 to 2020. DEN incidence occurs in seven HKH countries, i.e., India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Myanmar, and CHIK occurs in four HKH countries, i.e., India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar, out of eight HKH countries. DEN is highly seasonal and starts with the onset of the monsoon (July in India and June in Nepal) and with the onset of spring (May in Bhutan) and peaks in the postmonsoon season (September to November). This current trend of increasing numbers of both diseases in many countries of the HKH region requires coordination of response efforts to prevent and control the future expansion of those vector-borne diseases to nonendemic areas, across national borders. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemics; monsoon; postmonsoon; public health epidemics; monsoon; postmonsoon; public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Phuyal, P.; Kramer, I.M.; Klingelhöfer, D.; Kuch, U.; Madeburg, A.; Groneberg, D.A.; Wouters, E.; Dhimal, M.; Müller, R. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Dengue and Chikungunya in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186656

AMA Style

Phuyal P, Kramer IM, Klingelhöfer D, Kuch U, Madeburg A, Groneberg DA, Wouters E, Dhimal M, Müller R. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Dengue and Chikungunya in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186656

Chicago/Turabian Style

Phuyal, Parbati, Isabelle M. Kramer, Doris Klingelhöfer, Ulrich Kuch, Axel Madeburg, David A. Groneberg, Edwin Wouters, Meghnath Dhimal, and Ruth Müller. 2020. "Spatiotemporal Distribution of Dengue and Chikungunya in the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186656

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