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Article

Exploring the Gender Difference and Predictors of Perceived Stress among Students Enrolled in Different Medical Programs: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Policlinico Universitario, University of Messina, 98124 Messina, Italy
2
Department of Medical Sciences and Neurology, Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine at Seton Hall University, Nutley, NJ 07110, USA
3
Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, New York, NY 10035, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186647
Received: 26 July 2020 / Revised: 27 August 2020 / Accepted: 30 August 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
Female medical students seem to experience higher level of perceived stress. Moreover, there is a lack of research examining perceived stress in students enrolled in different medical programs. We analyzed the association between temperament traits, optimism, self-esteem, and perceived stress of students pursuing a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree and students pursuing a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM) degree. A cross-sectional study was conducted of two cohorts: allopathic medical students (N = 154) and the podiatric medical students (N = 150). Students anonymously completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto Questionnaire (TEMPS-A), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Life Orientation Test—Revised (LOT-R). We analyzed differences in the two cohort of students and predictors of perceived stress. There were no differences in the overall perception of stress between both cohorts (allopathic medical students: 18.83 ± 0.56; podiatric medical students: 19.3 ± 0.72; p = 0.4419). Women reported higher perceived stress in both programs (allopathic medical students: p = 0.0.038; podiatric medical students: p = 0.0.038). In both allopathic and podiatric medical students, the cyclothymic temperaments and anxious traits were positive predictors while hyperthymic temperaments and optimism traits were negative predictors of perceived stress. The level of perceived stress experienced by students pursuing different doctoral degrees in healthcare is similar. Regardless of the curriculum differences, female students experience higher perceived stress and there is evidence for similarities in predictors amongst allopathic and podiatric medical students. View Full-Text
Keywords: stress; medical student; temperament; self-esteem; optimism stress; medical student; temperament; self-esteem; optimism
MDPI and ACS Style

Infortuna, C.; Gratteri, F.; Benotakeia, A.; Patel, S.; Fleischman, A.; Muscatello, M.R.A.; Bruno, A.; Zoccali, R.A.; Chusid, E.; Han, Z.; Battaglia, F. Exploring the Gender Difference and Predictors of Perceived Stress among Students Enrolled in Different Medical Programs: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186647

AMA Style

Infortuna C, Gratteri F, Benotakeia A, Patel S, Fleischman A, Muscatello MRA, Bruno A, Zoccali RA, Chusid E, Han Z, Battaglia F. Exploring the Gender Difference and Predictors of Perceived Stress among Students Enrolled in Different Medical Programs: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Infortuna, Carmenrita, Francesco Gratteri, Andrew Benotakeia, Sapan Patel, Alex Fleischman, Maria R.A. Muscatello, Antonio Bruno, Rocco A. Zoccali, Eileen Chusid, Zhiyong Han, and Fortunato Battaglia. 2020. "Exploring the Gender Difference and Predictors of Perceived Stress among Students Enrolled in Different Medical Programs: A Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186647

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