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Open AccessReview

Urban Noise and Psychological Distress: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy
2
Occupational Medicine School, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy
3
Department of Health Sciences, Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy
4
Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Locomotor Apparatus Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 5 Piazzale Aldo Moro, I-00185 Rome, Italy
5
Faculty of Medicine & Surgery, University of Malta, MSD 2080 Msida, Malta
6
Head of the Malta Postgraduate Medical Training Programme, Mater Dei Hospital Msida, MSD 2090 L-Imsida, Malta
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186621
Received: 12 June 2020 / Revised: 6 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment and Health)
Chronic exposure to urban noise is harmful for auditory perception, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and nervous systems, while also causing psychological annoyance. Around 25% of the EU population experience a deterioration in the quality of life due to annoyance and about 5–15% suffer from sleep disorders, with many disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost annually. This systematic review highlights the main sources of urban noise, the relevant principal clinical disorders and the most effected countries. This review included articles published on the major databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus), using a combination of some keywords. The online search yielded 265 references; after selection, the authors have analyzed 54 articles (5 reviews and 49 original articles). From the analysis, among the sources of exposure, we found the majority of items dealing with airports and wind turbines, followed by roads and trains; the main disorders that were investigated in different populations dealt with annoyance and sleep disorders, sometimes associated with cardiovascular symptoms. Regarding countries, studies were published from all over the world with a slight prevalence from Western Europe. Considering these fundamental health consequences, research needs to be extended in such a way as to include new sources of noise and new technologies, to ensure a health promotion system and to reduce the risk of residents being exposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban noise; environmental; annoyance; sleep disorders; health disorders; residents; exposure; dose–response urban noise; environmental; annoyance; sleep disorders; health disorders; residents; exposure; dose–response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mucci, N.; Traversini, V.; Lorini, C.; De Sio, S.; Galea, R.P.; Bonaccorsi, G.; Arcangeli, G. Urban Noise and Psychological Distress: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6621. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186621

AMA Style

Mucci N, Traversini V, Lorini C, De Sio S, Galea RP, Bonaccorsi G, Arcangeli G. Urban Noise and Psychological Distress: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6621. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186621

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mucci, Nicola; Traversini, Veronica; Lorini, Chiara; De Sio, Simone; Galea, Raymond P.; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Arcangeli, Giulio. 2020. "Urban Noise and Psychological Distress: A Systematic Review" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 18: 6621. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186621

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