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Open AccessArticle

The Severity of Traumatic Stress Associated with COVID-19 Pandemic, Perception of Support, Sense of Security, and Sense of Meaning in Life among Nurses: Research Protocol and Preliminary Results from Poland

1
Department of Family Medicine and Community Nursing, Medical University of Lublin, Staszica 6 Str., PL-20-081 Lublin, Poland
2
Institute of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Management and Social Communication, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Lojasiewicza 4 Str., PL-30-348 Krakow, Poland
3
Department of Didactics and Medical Simulation, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 4 Str., PL-20-093 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186491
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 7 September 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic can not only affect physical health, but also mental health, resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of this new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomenon. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviews were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years and working throughout Poland joined the study. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the “avoidance” dimension was 1.86 ± 0.73. Amongst participating nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22). Higher average scores were noted among participants in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale “presence” (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, their current sense of meaning in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses received individual support mostly from significant others (i.e., other than family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of post-traumatic growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life
MDPI and ACS Style

Nowicki, G.J.; Ślusarska, B.; Tucholska, K.; Naylor, K.; Chrzan-Rodak, A.; Niedorys, B. The Severity of Traumatic Stress Associated with COVID-19 Pandemic, Perception of Support, Sense of Security, and Sense of Meaning in Life among Nurses: Research Protocol and Preliminary Results from Poland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6491. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186491

AMA Style

Nowicki GJ, Ślusarska B, Tucholska K, Naylor K, Chrzan-Rodak A, Niedorys B. The Severity of Traumatic Stress Associated with COVID-19 Pandemic, Perception of Support, Sense of Security, and Sense of Meaning in Life among Nurses: Research Protocol and Preliminary Results from Poland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6491. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186491

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nowicki, Grzegorz J.; Ślusarska, Barbara; Tucholska, Kinga; Naylor, Katarzyna; Chrzan-Rodak, Agnieszka; Niedorys, Barbara. 2020. "The Severity of Traumatic Stress Associated with COVID-19 Pandemic, Perception of Support, Sense of Security, and Sense of Meaning in Life among Nurses: Research Protocol and Preliminary Results from Poland" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 18: 6491. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186491

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