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Article

COVID-19 Pandemic: Age-Related Differences in Measures of Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Canada

1
Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB T6G 2R3, Canada
3
Addiction and Mental Health, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176366
Received: 10 July 2020 / Revised: 12 August 2020 / Accepted: 29 August 2020 / Published: 1 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19)
Background: The spread of COVID-19 along with strict public health measures have resulted in unintended adverse effects, including greater levels of distress, anxiety, and depression. This study examined relative presentations of these psychopathologies in different age groups in a Canadian cohort during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: Participants were subscribers to the Text4Hope program, developed to support Albertans during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey link was used to gather demographic information and responses on several self-report scales, such as Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results: There were 8267 individuals who completed the survey, giving a response rate of 19.4%. Overall, 909 (11.0%) respondents identified as ≤25 years, 2939 (35.6%) identified as (26–40) years, 3431 (41.5%) identified as (41–60) years, 762 (9.2%) identified as over 60 years, and 226 (2.7%) did not identify their age. Mean scores on the PSS, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 scales were highest among those aged ≤25 and lowest amongst those aged >60 years old. Conclusions: The finding that the prevalence rates and the mean scores for stress, anxiety, and depression on standardized scales to decrease from younger to older subscribers is an interesting observation with potential implications for planning to meet mental health service needs during COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; anxiety; depression; stress; e-mental health; age categories; Text4Hope COVID-19; pandemic; anxiety; depression; stress; e-mental health; age categories; Text4Hope
MDPI and ACS Style

Nwachukwu, I.; Nkire, N.; Shalaby, R.; Hrabok, M.; Vuong, W.; Gusnowski, A.; Surood, S.; Urichuk, L.; Greenshaw, A.J.; Agyapong, V.I.O. COVID-19 Pandemic: Age-Related Differences in Measures of Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6366. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176366

AMA Style

Nwachukwu I, Nkire N, Shalaby R, Hrabok M, Vuong W, Gusnowski A, Surood S, Urichuk L, Greenshaw AJ, Agyapong VIO. COVID-19 Pandemic: Age-Related Differences in Measures of Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6366. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176366

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nwachukwu, Izu, Nnamdi Nkire, Reham Shalaby, Marianne Hrabok, Wesley Vuong, April Gusnowski, Shireen Surood, Liana Urichuk, Andrew J. Greenshaw, and Vincent I.O. Agyapong 2020. "COVID-19 Pandemic: Age-Related Differences in Measures of Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Canada" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 17: 6366. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176366

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