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Article

Are There Seasonal Variations in Faecal Contamination of Exposure Pathways? An Assessment in a Low–Income Settlement in Uganda

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Environmental Engineering and Water Technology Department, IHE Delft Institute of Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
2
Department of Environmental Management, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala 7062, Uganda
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Department of Disease Control and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala 7062, Uganda
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176355
Received: 11 July 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 1 September 2020
Sanitation infrastructure are not able to cope with the increasing population in low-income countries, which leaves populations exposed to faecal contamination from multiple pathways. This study evaluated public health risk (using SaniPath) in a low-income community during the dry season, to identify the dominant exposure pathways, and compare this data to existing data for the rainy season, questioning the assumption that risk of faecal contamination is higher in the rainy season. SaniPath was used to collect and assess exposure and environmental data, and to generate risk profiles for each pathway. In the dry season the highest exposure frequency was for bathing and street food, exposure frequency generally increased, and seasonal variation was found in five pathways. The highest hazards in the dry season were through contact with drains, soil, and street food. Seasonal variation was found in the contamination of open drains and street food, with higher levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the dry season. Open drains were identified as the most dominant risk pathway in both seasons, but risk was higher in the dry season. This highlights the complex nature of seasonal variation of faecal risk, and questions the assumption that risk is higher in the rainy season. View Full-Text
Keywords: sanitation; SaniPath; seasonal variation; exposure pathways; low-income; Kampala sanitation; SaniPath; seasonal variation; exposure pathways; low-income; Kampala
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ronoh, P.; Furlong, C.; Kansiime, F.; Mugambe, R.; Brdjanovic, D. Are There Seasonal Variations in Faecal Contamination of Exposure Pathways? An Assessment in a Low–Income Settlement in Uganda. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6355. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176355

AMA Style

Ronoh P, Furlong C, Kansiime F, Mugambe R, Brdjanovic D. Are There Seasonal Variations in Faecal Contamination of Exposure Pathways? An Assessment in a Low–Income Settlement in Uganda. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6355. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176355

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ronoh, Patrick, Claire Furlong, Frank Kansiime, Richard Mugambe, and Damir Brdjanovic. 2020. "Are There Seasonal Variations in Faecal Contamination of Exposure Pathways? An Assessment in a Low–Income Settlement in Uganda" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 17: 6355. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176355

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