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Article

Mortality among Fire Department of the City of New York Rescue and Recovery Workers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster, 2001–2017

1
Fire Department of the City of New York, Bureau of Health Services, 9 Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA
2
Department of Medicine, Pulmonology Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10467, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
4
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, NY 10467, USA
5
Department of Medicine, Pulmonology Division, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176266
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 25 August 2020 / Published: 28 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9/11 Health Update)
The World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on 9/11/2001 have consistently been associated with elevated rates of physical and mental health morbidities, while evidence about mortality has been limited. We examined mortality between 9/12/2001 and 12/31/2017 among 15,431 WTC-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) firefighters and emergency medical service providers (EMS), specifically assessing associations between intensity of WTC-exposure and mortality risk. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared FDNY cohort mortality with the US general population using life table analysis. Deaths were identified via linkage to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify associations between intensity of WTC-exposure and mortality, accounting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking history, and other relevant confounders. We identified 546 deaths and a lower than expected all-cause mortality rate (SMR = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.20–0.24). No cause-specific SMRs were meaningfully elevated. Mortality hazard ratios showed no association or linear trend with level of WTC-exposure. Our results provide evidence of the healthy worker effect, despite exposure to the World Trade Center. More follow-up time may be needed to assess the full impact of WTC-exposure on mortality in this occupational population. View Full-Text
Keywords: mortality; disaster epidemiology; world trade center; rescue/recovery workers; occupational exposure mortality; disaster epidemiology; world trade center; rescue/recovery workers; occupational exposure
MDPI and ACS Style

Colbeth, H.L.; Zeig-Owens, R.; Hall, C.B.; Webber, M.P.; Schwartz, T.M.; Prezant, D.J. Mortality among Fire Department of the City of New York Rescue and Recovery Workers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster, 2001–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6266. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176266

AMA Style

Colbeth HL, Zeig-Owens R, Hall CB, Webber MP, Schwartz TM, Prezant DJ. Mortality among Fire Department of the City of New York Rescue and Recovery Workers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster, 2001–2017. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6266. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176266

Chicago/Turabian Style

Colbeth, Hilary L., Rachel Zeig-Owens, Charles B. Hall, Mayris P. Webber, Theresa M. Schwartz, and David J. Prezant. 2020. "Mortality among Fire Department of the City of New York Rescue and Recovery Workers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster, 2001–2017" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 17: 6266. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176266

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