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Article

Descriptive Study of Children’s Nutritional Status and Identification of Community-Level Nursing Diagnoses in a School Community in Africa

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Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Institute of Health Sciences/School of Nursing (Porto)/Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Health, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
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Center for Health Technology and Services Research, NursID Project, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
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Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Institute of Health Sciences/School of Nursing (Porto), 4169-005 Porto, Portugal
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Maputo Central Hospital, Board of Directors, Maputo 1100, Mozambique
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SC Fitness, Sonae Capital, 4471–907 Maia, Portugal
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Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde (IINFACTS), Cooperativa de Ensino Superior Politécnico e Universitário (CESPU), 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal
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ACeS Porto Ocidental, North Region Health Administration, 4000-447 Porto, Portugal
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Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
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William F. Connell School of Nursing, Boston College, Newton, MA 02467, USA
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Departamento Enfermeria Comunitaria, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Publica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad de Alicante, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176108
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 18 August 2020 / Accepted: 19 August 2020 / Published: 21 August 2020
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that is based upon clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) to conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: a cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight–height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating evidenced by the lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: a nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were identified as important criteria to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutritional surveillance; public health; community health nursing; public health nursing; children’s health; community participation nutritional surveillance; public health; community health nursing; public health nursing; children’s health; community participation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Melo, P.; Sousa, M.I.; Dimande, M.M.; Taboada, S.; Nogueira, M.A.; Pinto, C.; Figueiredo, M.H.; Nguyen, T.H.; Martínez-Riera, J.R. Descriptive Study of Children’s Nutritional Status and Identification of Community-Level Nursing Diagnoses in a School Community in Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6108. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176108

AMA Style

Melo P, Sousa MI, Dimande MM, Taboada S, Nogueira MA, Pinto C, Figueiredo MH, Nguyen TH, Martínez-Riera JR. Descriptive Study of Children’s Nutritional Status and Identification of Community-Level Nursing Diagnoses in a School Community in Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6108. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176108

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melo, Pedro, Maria I. Sousa, Matilde M. Dimande, Sónia Taboada, Maria A. Nogueira, Carlos Pinto, Maria H. Figueiredo, Tam H. Nguyen, and José R. Martínez-Riera 2020. "Descriptive Study of Children’s Nutritional Status and Identification of Community-Level Nursing Diagnoses in a School Community in Africa" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 17: 6108. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176108

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