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Understanding COVID-19: From Origin to Potential Therapeutics

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Lahore 54700, Pakistan
Center for Targeted Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University School of Pharmacy, Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Irvine, CA 92618, USA
Foundation for Young Researchers, Lahore 54700, Pakistan
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Marshall B. Ketchum University, Fullerton, CA 92831, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5904;
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 30 July 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
Currently, a global pandemic era of public health concerns is going on with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first case of COVID-19 was reported from Wuhan’s Huanan seafood market in China late December 2019. Bats, pangolins, and snakes have been nominated as salient carriers of the virus. Thanks to its high pathogenicity, it can cause severe respiratory infections. Fever, dry cough, sore throat, pneumonia, septic shock, and ground-glass opacities are the foremost clinical manifestations of COVID-19. Immunocompromised patients are at high risk for COVID-19 infection and may lead to death. Scientist and government agencies around the globe are putting forward their best efforts and resources for the effective treatment of human coronavirus infections; however, neither vaccines nor antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of human coronaviruses (HCoV) infections such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS (Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome), and COVID-19. Since the outbreak, a plethora of research and review articles have been published. Moreover, the mass media has bombarded the public with conflicting opinions about the pandemic. There is a dire need for accurate and reliable information concerning this pandemic. In this review, we have compiled the up to date information about the origins, evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of this disease. Moreover, very few reports have addressed the clinical features and current status of treatment for COVID-19; we have adequately addressed these topics in detail in this review. Finally, a detailed account of clinical trials of vaccines and other therapeutics currently in progress has been delineated. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; cytokine storm; clinical features; dexamethasone; epidemiology; life cycle; pathogenesis; RT-PCR; remdesivir; SARS-CoV-2; therapeutics; vaccines COVID-19; cytokine storm; clinical features; dexamethasone; epidemiology; life cycle; pathogenesis; RT-PCR; remdesivir; SARS-CoV-2; therapeutics; vaccines
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Moazzam, M.; Sajid, M.I.; Shahid, H.; Butt, J.; Bashir, I.; Jamshaid, M.; Shirazi, A.N.; Tiwari, R.K. Understanding COVID-19: From Origin to Potential Therapeutics. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5904.

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