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Article

Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Impairment in Autonomous and Institutionalized Older Adults

1
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, 37002 Salamanca, Spain
2
Departmento de Psicología de la Salud, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, 03202 Elche, Spain
3
Department of Psychology and Education, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
4
CINTESIS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Rua Doutor Plácido da Costa, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165777
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 5 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Mass Communication, Digital Media, and Public Health)
It is necessary to determine which variables help prevent the presence of decline or deterioration during the aging process as a function of advancing age. This research analyses the relations between cognitive reserve (CR) and cognitive impairment in 300 individuals. It also aims to confirm the influence of different variables (gender, age, level of studies and institutionalization) in CR and in deterioration in a population of older adults. The results indicate that people with higher CR present less deterioration. Regarding the role of the sociodemographic variables in the level of deterioration and CR, there are no differences between men and women, but there are differences in the variables age, level of studies and institutionalization, in such a way that the older age the greater the cognitive deterioration, the higher the level of studies, the more RC and less deterioration and it was found that the non-institutionalized people present less deterioration and greater CR. It is affirmed that two people with similar clinical characteristics may present different levels of pathology, being the CR the explanation of this fact. The results obtained allow us to affirm that the measurement of CR is considered an essential variable for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive reserve; active aging; cognitive impairment; education level cognitive reserve; active aging; cognitive impairment; education level
MDPI and ACS Style

Wöbbeking-Sánchez, M.; Bonete-López, B.; Cabaco, A.S.; Urchaga-Litago, J.D.; Afonso, R.M. Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Impairment in Autonomous and Institutionalized Older Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5777. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165777

AMA Style

Wöbbeking-Sánchez M, Bonete-López B, Cabaco AS, Urchaga-Litago JD, Afonso RM. Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Impairment in Autonomous and Institutionalized Older Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16):5777. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165777

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wöbbeking-Sánchez, Marina; Bonete-López, Beatriz; Cabaco, Antonio S.; Urchaga-Litago, José D.; Afonso, Rosa M. 2020. "Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Cognitive Impairment in Autonomous and Institutionalized Older Adults" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 16: 5777. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165777

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