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Sociotropy, Autonomy and Emotional Symptoms in Patients with Major Depression or Generalized Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Rumination and Immature Defenses

1
Child and Youth Mental Health Unit, Álvaro Cunqueiro Hospital, 36213 Vigo, Spain
2
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5716; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165716
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 7 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
The relationships between dimensions of personality (sociotropy and autonomy), coping strategies (rumination: brooding and reflection subtypes, and immature defenses) and symptoms of depression and anxiety were explored in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). A total of 279 patients completed questionnaires including measures of personality dimensions, rumination, immature defenses, depression and anxiety. Our findings suggested that sociotropy and autonomy may be associated with both depressive and anxious symptoms in patients with MDD and with GAD. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that brooding always acted as a mediating link between personality vulnerabilities (sociotropy and autonomy) and depressive and anxiety symptoms, independently of the patient group. In addition, in patients with MDD and those with GAD, brooding and immature defenses functioned together by linking sociotropy and autonomy, respectively, with depressive symptoms. Our results also showed that, in patients with GAD, both types of rumination explained the relationship between sociotropy and autonomy and anxiety symptoms. Overall, our findings provided evidence of the transdiagnostic role of the brooding, linking the vulnerability of personality dimensions and emotional symptoms. They also indicated that reflection and immature defenses can operate in conjunction with brooding, depending on the type of vulnerability and emotional context. View Full-Text
Keywords: sociotropy; autonomy; rumination; immature defenses; emotional symptoms; multiple mediation models sociotropy; autonomy; rumination; immature defenses; emotional symptoms; multiple mediation models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez, R.; Senra, C.; Fernández-Rey, J.; Merino, H. Sociotropy, Autonomy and Emotional Symptoms in Patients with Major Depression or Generalized Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Rumination and Immature Defenses. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165716

AMA Style

Martínez R, Senra C, Fernández-Rey J, Merino H. Sociotropy, Autonomy and Emotional Symptoms in Patients with Major Depression or Generalized Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Rumination and Immature Defenses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16):5716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165716

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez, Ruth, Carmen Senra, José Fernández-Rey, and Hipólito Merino. 2020. "Sociotropy, Autonomy and Emotional Symptoms in Patients with Major Depression or Generalized Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Rumination and Immature Defenses" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 16: 5716. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165716

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