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Review

Decreased Blood Glucose and Lactate: Is a Useful Indicator of Recovery Ability in Athletes?

1
Graduate School of Sports Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13503, Korea
2
Department of Health Care and Science, College of Health Science, Dong-A University, Busan 49315, Korea
3
Department of Molecular and Cellular Sports Medicine, Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sports Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, 50933 Cologne, Germany
4
Olympic Training Centre Rhineland, 50933 Cologne, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155470
Received: 9 July 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 29 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology and Performance)
During low-intensity exercise stages of the lactate threshold test, blood lactate concentrations gradually diminish due to the predominant utilization of total fat oxidation. However, it is unclear why blood glucose is also reduced in well-trained athletes who also exhibit decreased lactate concentrations. This review focuses on decreased glucose and lactate concentrations at low-exercise intensity performed in well-trained athletes. During low-intensity exercise, the accrued resting lactate may predominantly be transported via blood from the muscle cell to the liver/kidney. Accordingly, there is increased hepatic blood flow with relatively more hepatic glucose output than skeletal muscle glucose output. Hepatic lactate uptake and lactate output of skeletal muscle during recovery time remained similar which may support a predominant Cori cycle (re-synthesis). However, this pathway may be insufficient to produce the necessary glucose level because of the low concentration of lactate and the large energy source from fat. Furthermore, fatty acid oxidation activates key enzymes and hormonal responses of gluconeogenesis while glycolysis-related enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase are allosterically inhibited. Decreased blood lactate and glucose in low-intensity exercise stages may be an indicator of recovery ability in well-trained athletes. Athletes of intermittent sports may need this recovery ability to successfully perform during competition. View Full-Text
Keywords: aspartate transaminase; Cori cycle; hepatic blood flow; oxaloacetate; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; pyruvate dehydrogenase aspartate transaminase; Cori cycle; hepatic blood flow; oxaloacetate; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; pyruvate dehydrogenase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, W.-H.; Park, H.; Grau, M.; Heine, O. Decreased Blood Glucose and Lactate: Is a Useful Indicator of Recovery Ability in Athletes? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155470

AMA Style

Yang W-H, Park H, Grau M, Heine O. Decreased Blood Glucose and Lactate: Is a Useful Indicator of Recovery Ability in Athletes? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(15):5470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155470

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Woo-Hwi, Hyuntae Park, Marijke Grau, and Oliver Heine. 2020. "Decreased Blood Glucose and Lactate: Is a Useful Indicator of Recovery Ability in Athletes?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 15: 5470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155470

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