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Open AccessBrief Report

Coronavirus: COVID-19 Transmission in Pacific Small Island Developing States

1
European School of Sustainability Science and Research, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Ulmenliet 20, D-21033 Hamburg, Germany
2
Department of Natural Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD U, UK
3
School of Social Sciences, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney NSW 2052, Australia
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School of Social Sciences, CHC Higher Education, Carindale, Brisbane QLD 4152, Australia
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Department of Psychology, Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225-9172, USA
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School of Social Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore QLD 4558, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155409
Received: 12 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
Background: Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have health care systems with a limited capacity to deal with pandemics, making them especially vulnerable to the economic and social impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19). This paper examines the introduction, transmission, and incidence of COVID-19 into Pacific SIDS. Methods: Calculate the rate of transmission (the average number of new cases per day between the first recorded case and the most recent day) and connectivity (daily direct flights to the leading airport in each selected island group) using flight history and COVID-19 transmission data. Results: Correlational analyses show that connectivity is positively related with (a) first-case dates and (b) spread rate in Pacific SIDS. Conclusion: Connectivity plays a central role in the spread of COVID-19 in Pacific SIDS. The continued entry of people was a significant factor for spread within countries. Efforts to prevent transmission by closing borders reduced transmission but also created significant economic hardship because many Pacific SIDS rely heavily on tourism and international exchange. The findings highlight the importance of exploring the possibility that the COVID-19 spread rate may be higher than official figures indicate, and present pathways to mitigate socio-economic impacts. The practical implications of the findings reveal the vulnerability of Pacific SIDS to pandemics and the key role of connectivity in the spread of COVID-19 in the Pacific region. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; pandemic; coronavirus pandemic; economic impact; Pacific islands; Pacific region; Pacific Small Island Development States coronavirus; COVID-19; pandemic; coronavirus pandemic; economic impact; Pacific islands; Pacific region; Pacific Small Island Development States
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leal Filho, W.; Lütz, J.M.; Sattler, D.N.; Nunn, P.D. Coronavirus: COVID-19 Transmission in Pacific Small Island Developing States. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5409. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155409

AMA Style

Leal Filho W, Lütz JM, Sattler DN, Nunn PD. Coronavirus: COVID-19 Transmission in Pacific Small Island Developing States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(15):5409. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155409

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leal Filho, Walter; Lütz, Johannes M.; Sattler, David N.; Nunn, Patrick D. 2020. "Coronavirus: COVID-19 Transmission in Pacific Small Island Developing States" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 15: 5409. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155409

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