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Open AccessArticle

Health Risk Evaluation of Trace Elements in Geophagic Kaolinitic Clays within Eastern Dahomey and Niger Delta Basins, Nigeria

1
Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220282, Osun State, Nigeria
2
Directorate of Research and Innovation, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, Limpopo Province, South Africa
3
School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, Limpopo Province, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134813
Received: 25 April 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 4 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mining and the Environment: Challenges and Opportunities)
The deliberate consumption of earthly materials is a universally recognised habit with health benefits and risks to those that practice it. Thirteen (13) samples comprising of six (6) Cretaceous and seven (7) Paleogene/Neogene geophagic kaolinitic materials, respectively, were collected and analysed for trace element concentrations (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Fe), and possible risk on consumers’ health. The trace element compositions were obtained using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analytical methods. Based on their average concentrations, Fe > V > Cr > Ni > Zn > Pb > Cu > Co and Fe > V > Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co for the Cretaceous and Paleogene/Neogene geophagic clays, respectively. Iron concentrations were significantly higher in Paleogene/Neogene geophagic clays than in Cretaceous geophagic clays. The nutritional value of Cu and Zn were lower whereas, Cr and Fe were higher than the recommended dietary intake. The index of geoaccumulation (0 < Igeo ≤ 1) showed that the geophagic materials were uncontaminated to moderately contaminated by the trace elements. The overall hazard indices (HI) for non-carcinogenic effects showed that the geophagic clays pose threat to children (HI > 1) and no threat to adults (HI < 1) health. However, the carcinogenic risk indices (CRI) for Cr, Ni, and Pb were within acceptable cancer risks (10−6 < CRI < 10−4) for children and adults. Hence, based on the trace element s HI and CRI, this study concluded that the consumption of Cretaceous and Paleogene/Neogene geophagic kaolinitic clays poses no risks to adult health but children might suffer health risk if the geophagic clays are not beneficiated before ingestion. View Full-Text
Keywords: geophagia; health risk; kaolin; dietary intake; pollution geophagia; health risk; kaolin; dietary intake; pollution
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Oyebanjo, O.; Ekosse, G.-I.; Odiyo, J. Health Risk Evaluation of Trace Elements in Geophagic Kaolinitic Clays within Eastern Dahomey and Niger Delta Basins, Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4813.

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