Mobilizing for Community Benefits to Assess Health and Promote Environmental Justice near the Gordie Howe International Bridge
2. Background and Context
2.1. Cumulative Impacts for Delray and Surrounding Community
2.2. Health Impact Assessment to Inform Community Benefits
- Testifying at state hearings at multiple points in the bridge deliberations;
- Organizing a ‘Visit Before you Vote’ campaign, and a tour of the affected area for elected officials and bridge decision-makers to humanize land use decisions;
- Holding call-in days to mayors, city council, and the Governor’s office to inform specific decisions;
- Signing thousands of postcards and organizing petitions to advocate for community benefits (see Figure 3);
- Conducting community-led studies on truck traffic and routes, air quality, and health of residents to share with decision-makers;
- Door-knocking and holding countless CBC meetings to inform residents of data, pending decisions, and opportunities to engage.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Community-Led Data Collection
3.2. Designing a Community-Driven Health Impact Assessment
3.3. Data Analysis
- Reduce emissions of air pollutants or noise associated with the new GHIB;
- Reduce the exposure of residents to air pollutants or noise emitted as a result of GHIB activity;
- Reduce adverse health effects among residents whose health is impacted by air pollutants or noise in the GHIB area.
4.1. Demographic & Health Characteristics
4.2. Neighborhood Perceptions and Plans to Move
- Expanding the optional home swap program to include all residents living within 500 feet of the new bridge;
- Expanding the number of homes eligible for windows and indoor air filters to reduce indoor air pollutants;
- Assuring that entrance and exit ramps and truck routes avoid residential neighborhoods;
- And increasing enforcement of existing idling policies and truck routes.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Demographic Variables||Survey Respondents (2016, 2018) (n = 435) (A)||American Community Survey ≥ 18 Years Old (n = 11,320) * (B)||p-Value A vs. B||Survey Household Members|
(n = 1629) (C)
|American Community Survey All Household Residents|
(n = 16,382) (D)
|p-Value C vs. D||p-Value A vs. D|
|Education||<High School Graduation||48.7||n.a.||n.a.||46.2||0.464|
|High School Graduation||28.9||30.6|
|>High School Graduation||22.4||23.3|
|Self-Reported Asthma or Allergies Affecting Breathing or Asthma||Age Group||GHIB Area||GHIB Area|
|≤500 Feet||>500 Feet||All|
|Asthma||<18 years *||16.3||11.6||13.8|
|Under 5 years||9.8||4.6||7.4|
|Allergies affecting breathing or asthma||<18 years **||28.7||20.4||24.3|
|Under 5 years||18.3||10.6||14.9|
|5–17 years **||33.0||22.9||27.4|
|Perceptions of Neighborhood||n *||% Agree or Strongly Agree Unweighted Weighted|
|I think this neighborhood is a good place for me to live.||431||70.3||70.5|
|People in this neighborhood share the same values.||417||69.5||69.8|
|I feel at home in this neighborhood.||431||85.2||85.6|
|It is very important to me to live in this particular neighborhood.||433||63.3||64.0|
|I expect to live in this neighborhood for a long time.||424||68.6||69.6|
|People in this neighborhood generally know each other.||429||81.1||81.9|
|Plan to Move||% Living in Impact Area (n = 224)||% Living in Buffer Area (n = 211)||Statistical Test of Difference *|
|Within one year||8.6||5.3||0.01|
|Between 1–5 years||17.7||10.4|
|More than 5 years||5.9||4.7|
|Not planning to move||57.8||73.6|
|Neighborhood Concerns||Very Much a Concern (%)||Somewhat of a Concern (%)||Not a Concern at all|
|Traffic congestion making it hard to get places||76.1||8.8||15.9|
|Clogged sewers or standing water in streets||75.3||11.6||13.1|
|Outdoor air quality, such as emissions from trucks industry, fumes or odors||66.7||18.8||14.6|
|Vibration from trucks or construction activity damaging property||60.9||18.4||20.7|
|Loss of property value||56.7||21.3||22.0|
|Truck traffic on residential streets affecting safety||54.8||16.1||29.1|
|Noise during sleeping hours||47.1||20.3||32.6|
|Indoor air quality, such as fumes and dust inside the house||41.4||25.1||33.5|
|Noise during the day||40.9||29.8||29.3|
|Many residents moving away||23.8||35.6||40.6|
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Sampson, N.; Sagovac, S.; Schulz, A.; Fink, L.; Mentz, G.; Reyes, A.; Rice, K.; de Majo, R.; Gamboa, C.; Vial, B. Mobilizing for Community Benefits to Assess Health and Promote Environmental Justice near the Gordie Howe International Bridge. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4680. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134680
Sampson N, Sagovac S, Schulz A, Fink L, Mentz G, Reyes A, Rice K, de Majo R, Gamboa C, Vial B. Mobilizing for Community Benefits to Assess Health and Promote Environmental Justice near the Gordie Howe International Bridge. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(13):4680. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134680Chicago/Turabian Style
Sampson, Natalie, Simone Sagovac, Amy Schulz, Lauren Fink, Graciela Mentz, Angela Reyes, Kristina Rice, Ricardo de Majo, Cindy Gamboa, and Bridget Vial. 2020. "Mobilizing for Community Benefits to Assess Health and Promote Environmental Justice near the Gordie Howe International Bridge" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 13: 4680. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134680