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Exploring the Underlying Causes of Chinese Eastern Star, Korean Sewol, and Thai Phoenix Ferry Accidents by Employing the HFACS-MA

School of Emergency Management and Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology-Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114114
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 7 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
Maritime safety is a significant topic in the maritime industry since the numerous dangers at sea could lead to loss of property, environmental pollution, and even casualties. Existing research illustrates that human factors are the primary reasons of maritime accidents. Indeed, numerous maritime accidents can be classified into different types of human factors. In this context, the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System for Maritime Accidents (HFACS-MA) model is introduced in this paper. The HFACS-MA framework consists of five levels, complying with the core concepts of HFACS and the guiding principles of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Based on the five levels of the framework, this research explores the underlying causes of Chinese Eastern Star, Korean Sewol, and Thai Phoenix accidents, and a comparative analysis is conducted. The analysis demonstrates the utility of applying the HFACS-MA model to the maritime industry, and the results emphasize the importance of the following categories: legislation gaps, organizational process, inadequate supervision, communication (ships and VTS), decision errors, and so on. Consequently, the research enables increased support for HFACS-MA and its application and provides valuable information for safety management and policy development in the maritime industry at different levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: maritime safety; accident prevention; human factors; HFACS-MA maritime safety; accident prevention; human factors; HFACS-MA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Zhang, B.; Zhao, X.; Wang, L.; Tong, R. Exploring the Underlying Causes of Chinese Eastern Star, Korean Sewol, and Thai Phoenix Ferry Accidents by Employing the HFACS-MA. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4114. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114114

AMA Style

Wang X, Zhang B, Zhao X, Wang L, Tong R. Exploring the Underlying Causes of Chinese Eastern Star, Korean Sewol, and Thai Phoenix Ferry Accidents by Employing the HFACS-MA. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11):4114. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114114

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Xiaolong, Boling Zhang, Xu Zhao, Lulu Wang, and Ruipeng Tong. 2020. "Exploring the Underlying Causes of Chinese Eastern Star, Korean Sewol, and Thai Phoenix Ferry Accidents by Employing the HFACS-MA" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 11: 4114. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114114

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