Objectives: The formation of uterine fibroids (UF) is potentially linked to the development of thyroid cancer through a common factor: female sex hormones. Methods: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study to determine whether Taiwanese women with UF have an increased risk of thyroid cancer. The data of both the UF and control groups were derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Groups were matched by the year of UF diagnosis, age, income, urbanization level, occupation, and comorbidities. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to compare the incidence of thyroid cancer between the UF and control groups. In addition, the model was used to determine the hazard ratio of thyroid cancer in the UF group in comparison with the control group. Results: Women with UF had a statistically significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer compared with controls (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–2.13). Stratified analyses showed that women with UF who had a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer were more likely to be middle aged, have middle and higher income levels, and a medium follow-up period (1–5 years) of UF. No other UF patient characteristics and comorbidities showed association with the risk of thyroid cancer. In addition, UF patients had a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer regardless of whether or not they underwent myomectomy. Conclusions: The results suggest that women with UF have an increased risk of subsequent thyroid cancer. Further research is needed to explore whether surveillance strategies for the early detection of thyroid cancer using ultrasonography should be implemented among patients with UF.
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