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Open AccessArticle

Vision Development Differences between Slow and Fast Motor Development in Typical Developing Toddlers: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Physiotherapy, University of Seville, 41009 Seville, Spain
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INDESS (Instituto Universitario para el Desarrollo Social Sostenible), Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, University of Cadiz, 11009 Cadiz, Spain
3
Department of Physics of Condensed Matter, Optics Area, University of Seville, 41012 Seville, Spain
4
Department of Surgery, Ophthalmology Area, University of Seville, 41009 Seville, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103597
Received: 16 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
Many studies have established a relationship between visual function and motor development in toddlers. This is the first report to study two-year-olds via an assessment of their visual and motor skills. The purpose of this study is to describe the possible changes that can occur between visual and motor systems in typical developing toddlers. A total of 116 toddlers were included in this observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 29.57 ± 3.45 months. Motor development variables studied were dominant hand/foot; stationary, locomotion, object manipulation, grasping, visual motor integration percentiles; gross motor, fine motor, and total motor percentiles; and gross motor, fine motor, and total motor quotients. Visual development variables were assessed including visual acuity, refractive error, ocular alignment, motor fusion and suppression, ocular motility, and stereopsis. Our findings demonstrated that typical developing toddlers with slow gross motor development had higher exophoria and further near point of convergence values compared to toddlers with fast gross motor development (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in visual acuity and stereopsis between slow and fast gross motor development toddlers. View Full-Text
Keywords: child development; motor skills; vision disorders; evaluation; physical therapy; optometry child development; motor skills; vision disorders; evaluation; physical therapy; optometry
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Pinero-Pinto, E.; Pérez-Cabezas, V.; De-Hita-Cantalejo, C.; Ruiz-Molinero, C.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, E.; Jiménez-Rejano, J.-J.; Sánchez-González, J.-M.; Sánchez-González, M.C. Vision Development Differences between Slow and Fast Motor Development in Typical Developing Toddlers: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3597.

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