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Article

Food Environment in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Food Deserts, Food Swamps and Hot Spots

1
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
2
Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, AR 72035, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103354
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 1 May 2020 / Accepted: 10 May 2020 / Published: 12 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Systems, Food Environment, Diet and Nutrition Related Diseases)
The objectives for this study were to examine the location and density of measured food outlets in five rural towns in the Lower Mississippi Delta, determine the spatial location of Delta Healthy Sprouts (DHS) participants’ homes in the food environment, and examine relationships between the spatial location of participants’ homes and their diet quality. Using a food desert/food swamp framework, food outlet geographic locations were analyzed in relation to one another, the distance between DHS participants’ residence and closest food outlets by class were computed, and associations among residents’ diet quality, hot spot status, and census tract classification were explored. Of 266 food outlets identified, 11 (4%), 86 (32%), 50 (19%), and 119 (45%) were classified as grocery stores (GS), convenience stores (CS), full-service restaurants (FS), or fast food restaurants (FF), respectively. A third of participants lived in CS hot spots, while 22% lived in FF hot spots. DHS participants lived closer in miles to CS (0.4) and FF (0.5) as compared to GS (1.6) and FS (1.1) outlets. Participants bought most groceries at national chain grocery stores rather than their closest grocery store. The food environments of the five towns and associated neighborhoods in which DHS participants resided were not supportive of healthful eating, containing both food deserts and food swamps, often in overlapping patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: food environment; spatial analysis; hot spot analysis; food swamps; food deserts; diet quality food environment; spatial analysis; hot spot analysis; food swamps; food deserts; diet quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goodman, M.; Thomson, J.; Landry, A. Food Environment in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Food Deserts, Food Swamps and Hot Spots. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3354. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103354

AMA Style

Goodman M, Thomson J, Landry A. Food Environment in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Food Deserts, Food Swamps and Hot Spots. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(10):3354. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103354

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goodman, Melissa, Jessica Thomson, and Alicia Landry. 2020. "Food Environment in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Food Deserts, Food Swamps and Hot Spots" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 10: 3354. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103354

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