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Malaria Transmission around the Memve’ele Hydroelectric Dam in South Cameroon: A Combined Retrospective and Prospective Study, 2000–2016

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Laboratory of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 337 Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Institut de Recherche de Yaoundé (IRY), Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC), B.P. 288 Yaoundé, Cameroun
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Laboratory of Animal Biology and Physiology, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157 Douala, Cameroon
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Laboratoire d’Ingénierie Mathématique et Systèmes d’Information, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Polytechnique (ENSP), Université de Yaoundé I, B.P. 337 Yaoundé, Cameroun
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Centre de Recherche sur les Filarioses et Maladies Tropicales (CRFilMT), B.P. 5797 Yaoundé, Cameroun
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Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, P.O. Box 2701 Douala, Cameroon
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Institute for Insect Biotechnology, Justus-Liebig University Gießen, Winchesterstr. 2, 35394 Gießen, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091618
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Dam constructions are considered a great concern for public health. The current study aimed to investigate malaria transmission in the Nyabessan village around the Memve’ele dam in South Cameroon. Adult mosquitoes were captured by human landing catches in Nyabessan before and during dam construction in 2000–2006 and 2014–2016 respectively, as well as in the Olama village, which was selected as a control. Malaria vectors were morphologically identified and analyzed for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein detection and molecular identification of Anopheles (A.) gambiae species. Overall, ten malaria vector species were identified among 12,189 Anopheles specimens from Nyabessan (N = 6127) and Olama (N = 6062), including A. gambiae Giles (1902), A. coluzzii Coetzee (2013), A. moucheti Evans (1925), A. ovengensis Awono (2004), A. nili Theobald (1903), A. paludis Theobald (1900), A. zieanni, A. marshallii Theobald (1903), A. coustani Laveran (1900), and A. obscurus Grünberg (1905). In Nyabessan, A. moucheti and A. ovengensis were the main vector species before dam construction (16–50 bites/person/night-b/p/n, 0.26–0.71 infective bites/person/night-ib/p/n) that experienced a reduction of their role in disease transmission in 2016 (3–35 b/p/n, 0–0.5 ib/p/n) (p < 0.005). By contrast, the role of A. gambiae s.l. and A. paludis increased (11–38 b/p/n, 0.75–1.2 ib/p/n) (p < 0.01). In Olama, A. moucheti remained the main malaria vector species throughout the study period (p = 0.5). These findings highlight the need for a strong vector-borne disease surveillance and control system around the Memve’ele dam. View Full-Text
Keywords: malaria vectors; Plasmodium transmission; dam construction; Memve’ele; Cameroon malaria vectors; Plasmodium transmission; dam construction; Memve’ele; Cameroon
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Mbakop, L.R.; Awono-Ambene, P.H.; Mandeng, S.E.; Ekoko, W.E.; Fesuh, B.N.; Antonio-Nkondjio, C.; Toto, J.-C.; Nwane, P.; Fomena, A.; Etang, J. Malaria Transmission around the Memve’ele Hydroelectric Dam in South Cameroon: A Combined Retrospective and Prospective Study, 2000–2016. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1618.

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