The aim of this study is to document climate change adaptation interventions targeting Lyme disease at the municipal level in the province of Quebec (Canada). This exploratory study relies on the theory of planned behavior and certain constructs from the health belief model to identify the factors leading municipal authorities to implement preventive interventions for Lyme disease (PILD). Data were obtained from an online survey sent, during the summer of 2018, to municipal officers in 820 municipalities in Quebec, in all health regions where the population is at risk of contracting Lyme disease (response rate = 36%). The questionnaire was used to measure the implementation of PILD, the intention to implement these interventions, attitudes, perceived social pressure, perceived control (levers and barriers) over interventions, perceived effectiveness of preventive measures, risk, and perceived vulnerability. Results of structural equation analyses showed that attitudes were significantly associated with municipal authorities’ intention to implement PILD, while the intention to implement PILD was a significant predictor of the implementation of PILD. Additional analyses showed that perceived barriers added a moderating effect in the intention-implementation relationship. The prediction of behaviors or practices that municipal authorities could implement to prevent Lyme disease will enable the evaluation over time of the evolution of Quebec municipalities’ adaptation to Lyme disease. Moreover, the examination of the associations of specific psychosocial factors revealed important implications for the design of effective behavior-change interventions, which would allow health officials doing awareness work to create personalized interventions better suited to municipal officers and their specific contexts.
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