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Open AccessArticle

Distribution and Dietary Predictors of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Shanghai, China

by Xin He 1,†, Jiajie Zang 2,†, Ping Liao 1, Yang Zheng 3, Ye Lu 1, Zhenni Zhu 2, Yan Shi 1,* and Wenjing Wang 1,*
1
Laboratory of Functional Medicine, Division of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases and Injury, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
2
Department of Nutrition Hygiene, Division of Health Risk Factor Monitoring and Control, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
3
Department of NCD surveillance, Division of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases and Injury, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authors: Xin He and Jiajie Zang.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081366
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women's Reproductive and Maternal Health)
The exposure of pregnant women to phthalates is a major concern due to their adverse effect on developmental outcomes. Diet is an important pathway for exposure to phthalate compounds. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of pregnant women to phthalates in China are limited. We aimed to assess the distribution and dietary predictors of phthalate exposure among pregnant women in China. We measured the levels of 10 urinary phthalate metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in 210 pregnant women as part of the 2015 China National Chronic Disease and Nutrition Survey in Shanghai. We assessed the urinary specific gravity-adjusted phthalate metabolite levels along with potential demographic and dietary predictors. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between each potential demographic variable and dietary predictor and urinary phthalate metabolites. Seven urinary phthalate metabolites were detected in >95% of pregnant women. The geometric mean (GM) of urinary phthalate biomarker values were highest for monobutyl phthalate (GM: 25.29 ng/mL) and monoisobutyl phthalate (GM:11.18 ng/mL). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that a lower educational level was associated with elevated urinary phthalate metabolite levels. Edible seaweed consumption had a positive correlation with urinary monoethyl phthalate and monoisobutyl phthalate levels, and the total molar sum of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites. These findings offer important data on the dietary exposure to phthalates in pregnant Chinese women and suggest interventions to improve food safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: phthalate metabolites; pregnancy; dietary; edible seaweed phthalate metabolites; pregnancy; dietary; edible seaweed
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, X.; Zang, J.; Liao, P.; Zheng, Y.; Lu, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Shi, Y.; Wang, W. Distribution and Dietary Predictors of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Shanghai, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1366.

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