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Open AccessArticle

When Less is More: Vaping Low-Nicotine vs. High-Nicotine E-Liquid is Compensated by Increased Wattage and Higher Liquid Consumption

1
Thomas More University of Applied Sciences, Molenstraat 8, 2018 Antwerp, Belgium
2
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven—University of Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
3
Department of Cardiology, Erasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050723
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Cessation)
(1) Background: Previous research (Van Gucht, Adriaens, and Baeyens, 2017) showed that almost all (99%) of the 203 surveyed customers of a Dutch online vape shop had a history of smoking before they had started using an e-cigarette. Almost all were daily vapers who used on average 20 mL e-liquid per week, with an average nicotine concentration of 10 mg/mL. In the current study, we wanted to investigate certain evolutions with regard to technical aspects of vaping behaviour, such as wattage, the volume of e-liquid used and nicotine concentration. In recent years, much more powerful devices have become widely available, e-liquids with very low nicotine concentrations have become the rule rather than the exception in the market supply, and the legislation has been adjusted, including a restriction on maximum nicotine concentrations to 20 mg/mL. (2) Methods: Customers (n = 150) from the same Dutch online vape shop were contacted (to allow a historical comparison), as well as 274 visitors from the Facebook group “Belgian Vape Bond” to compare between groups from two different geographies and/or vaping cultures. (3) Results: Most results were in line with earlier findings: Almost all surveyed vapers were (ex-)smokers, had started (80%) vaping to quit smoking and reported similar positive effects of having switched from smoking to vaping (e.g., improved health). A striking observation, however, was that whereas customers of the Dutch online vape shop used e-liquids with a similar nicotine concentration as that observed previously, the Belgian vapers used e-liquids with a significantly lower nicotine concentration but consumed much more of it. The resulting intake of the total quantity of nicotine did not differ between groups. (4) Conclusions: Among vapers, different vaping typologies may exist, depending on subcultural and/or geographic parameters. As a consequence of choosing low nicotine concentrations and consuming more e-liquid, the Belgian vapers may have a greater potential to expose themselves to larger quantities of harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) released during vaping. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic cigarette; trends in vaping; nicotine electronic cigarette; trends in vaping; nicotine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smets, J.; Baeyens, F.; Chaumont, M.; Adriaens, K.; Van Gucht, D. When Less is More: Vaping Low-Nicotine vs. High-Nicotine E-Liquid is Compensated by Increased Wattage and Higher Liquid Consumption. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 723. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050723

AMA Style

Smets J, Baeyens F, Chaumont M, Adriaens K, Van Gucht D. When Less is More: Vaping Low-Nicotine vs. High-Nicotine E-Liquid is Compensated by Increased Wattage and Higher Liquid Consumption. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(5):723. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050723

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smets, Jorien; Baeyens, Frank; Chaumont, Martin; Adriaens, Karolien; Van Gucht, Dinska. 2019. "When Less is More: Vaping Low-Nicotine vs. High-Nicotine E-Liquid is Compensated by Increased Wattage and Higher Liquid Consumption" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 5: 723. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050723

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