Next Article in Journal
Objectively Measured Sitting and Standing in Workers: Cross-Sectional Relationship with Autonomic Cardiac Modulation
Previous Article in Journal
Spatiotemporal Variation and Hotspot Detection of the Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in China, 2013–2017
Open AccessArticle

Impact of Long-Term Reclaimed Water Irrigation on the Distribution of Potentially Toxic Elements in Soil: An In-Situ Experiment Study in the North China Plain

1
School of Geographic Science, Nantong University, Nantong 226000, China
2
Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
3
School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
4
Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing 100044, China
5
Geological Environmental Monitoring Central Station of Qinghai Province, Xining 810008, China
6
Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Shijiazhuang 050061, China
7
Forestry College of Shangong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China
8
Department of Chemistry, Nantong Vocational University, Nantong 226007, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040649
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
The widespread use of reclaimed water has alleviated the water resource crisis worldwide, but long-term use of reclaimed water for irrigation, especially in agricultural countries, might threaten the soil environment and further affect groundwater quality. An in-situ experiment had been carried out in the North China Plain, which aimed to reveal the impact of long-term reclaimed water irrigation on soil properties and distribution of potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Zn and Pb) in the soil profile as well as shallow groundwater. Four land plots were irrigated with different quantity of reclaimed water to represent 0, 13, 22 and 35 years’ irrigation duration. Pollution Load Index (PLI) values of each soil layer were calculated to further assess the pollution status of irrigated soils by potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Results showed that long-term reclaimed water irrigation caused appreciable increase of organic matter content, and might improve the soil quality. High soil organic matter concentrations conduced to high adsorption and retention capacity of the soils toward PTEs, which could reduce the risk of PTEs leaching into deep layers or shallow groundwater. Highest levels of Cr, Pb and Zn were observed at 200–240 cm and 460–500 cm horizons in plots. Longer irrigation time (35 years and 22 years) resulted in a decreasing trend of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Zn in lower part of soil profiles (>540 cm) compared with that with 13-years’ irrigation years. Long-term reclaimed water irrigation still brought about increases in concentrations of some elements in deep soil layer although their content in soils and shallow groundwater was below the national standard. Totally speaking, proper management for reclaimed water irrigation, such as reduction of irrigation volume and rate of reclaimed water, was still needed when a very long irrigation period was performed. View Full-Text
Keywords: reclaimed water irrigation; potentially toxic elements pollution; soil contamination; North China Plain reclaimed water irrigation; potentially toxic elements pollution; soil contamination; North China Plain
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, X.; Xiao, Y.; Yin, S.; Liu, H.; Men, B.; Hao, Z.; Qian, P.; Yan, H.; Hao, Q.; Niu, Y.; Huang, H.; Pei, Q. Impact of Long-Term Reclaimed Water Irrigation on the Distribution of Potentially Toxic Elements in Soil: An In-Situ Experiment Study in the North China Plain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 649.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, EISSN 1660-4601, Published by MDPI AG
Back to TopTop