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Article

Sources and Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Total Suspended Particles in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia

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Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
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Department of Environment and Forest engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
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Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan
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Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030442
Received: 1 January 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
The purpose of this study was to identify pollution sources by characterizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from total suspended particles in Ulaanbaatar City. Fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in total suspended particle samples collected from different sites, such as the urban center, industrial district and ger (Mongolian traditional house) areas, and residential areas both in heating (January, March), and non-heating (September) periods in 2017. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration ranged between 131 and 773 ng·m−3 in winter, 22.2 and 530.6 ng·m−3 in spring, and between 1.4 and 54.6 ng·m−3 in autumn. Concentrations of specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as phenanthrene were higher in the ger area in winter and spring seasons, and the pyrene concentration was dominant in late summer in the residential area. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the ger area were particularly higher than the other sites, especially in winter. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ratios indicated that vehicle emissions were likely the main source at the city center in the winter time. Mixed contributions from biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion were responsible for the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution at other sampling sites during the whole observation period. The lifetime inhalation cancer risk values in the ger area due to winter pollution were estimated to be 1.2 × 10−5 and 2.1 × 10−5 for child and adult exposures, respectively, which significantly exceed Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; total suspended particles; diagnostic ratio; pollution sources; inhalation health risk; Ulaanbaatar; Mongolia polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; total suspended particles; diagnostic ratio; pollution sources; inhalation health risk; Ulaanbaatar; Mongolia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Byambaa, B.; Yang, L.; Matsuki, A.; Nagato, E.G.; Gankhuyag, K.; Chuluunpurev, B.; Banzragch, L.; Chonokhuu, S.; Tang, N.; Hayakawa, K. Sources and Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Total Suspended Particles in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030442

AMA Style

Byambaa B, Yang L, Matsuki A, Nagato EG, Gankhuyag K, Chuluunpurev B, Banzragch L, Chonokhuu S, Tang N, Hayakawa K. Sources and Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Total Suspended Particles in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3):442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030442

Chicago/Turabian Style

Byambaa, Batdelger, Lu Yang, Atsushi Matsuki, Edward G. Nagato, Khongor Gankhuyag, Byambatseren Chuluunpurev, Lkhagvajargal Banzragch, Sonomdagva Chonokhuu, Ning Tang, and Kazuichi Hayakawa. 2019. "Sources and Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Total Suspended Particles in Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 3: 442. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030442

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