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As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Cd Concentrations and Bioaccumulation in the Dugong Dugong dugon and Manatee Trichechus manatus: A Review of Body Burdens and Distribution

Hydrobiology and Aquatic Pollution Laboratory, División Académica de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Carretera Villahermosa-Cárdenas Km. 0.5 S/N, Entronque a Bosques de Saloya, 86150 Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030404
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
The death of dozens of manatees Trichechus manatus recently in Tabasco, Mexico, has captured international attention. Speculation about possible causes include water and food contamination by metals. Although federal authorities have ruled out water chemical pollution, the cause of these deaths is still awaiting conclusive laboratory results. Present work seeks to summarize information currently available on non-essential metals and those of great toxicological relevance in Sirenia (dugongs and manatees), highlighting its body distribution, presence in blood, and its relationship with their geographical distribution, gender and age, whenever possible. This paper focuses on the five elements: As, Cr, Hg, Pb and Cd, which are commonly considered as threats for marine mammals and reported in Sirenia. Some of these metals (Cr and Cd) were thought to be related to the recent deaths in Tabasco. All five elements are accumulated by Sirenia at different levels. Metal presence is associated to their diet but does not necessarily imply adverse effects for dugongs and manatees. Toxicological aspects and the human consumption risk in case of any illegal or traditional consumption in some cultures are discussed. Important toxicological research areas that need to be addressed are highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sirenia; toxic metals; dugong; manatee; accumulation; body distribution Sirenia; toxic metals; dugong; manatee; accumulation; body distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Núñez-Nogueira, G.; Pérez-López, A.; Santos-Córdova, J.M. As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Cd Concentrations and Bioaccumulation in the Dugong Dugong dugon and Manatee Trichechus manatus: A Review of Body Burdens and Distribution. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 404. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030404

AMA Style

Núñez-Nogueira G, Pérez-López A, Santos-Córdova JM. As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Cd Concentrations and Bioaccumulation in the Dugong Dugong dugon and Manatee Trichechus manatus: A Review of Body Burdens and Distribution. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3):404. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030404

Chicago/Turabian Style

Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel, Alejandra Pérez-López, and Juanita M. Santos-Córdova 2019. "As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Cd Concentrations and Bioaccumulation in the Dugong Dugong dugon and Manatee Trichechus manatus: A Review of Body Burdens and Distribution" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 3: 404. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030404

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