Utilization of the Maryland Environmental Justice Screening Tool: A Bladensburg, Maryland Case Study
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Scoring Process
3.2. Comparison of MD EJSCREEN to CalEnviroScreen and EPA EJSCREEN
3.3. Bladensburg: A Case Study
Conflicts of Interest
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|Indicators||Description||EPA EJSCREEN||CalEnviroScreen||MD EJSCREEN|
|Pollution Burden: Exposure|
|National Scale Air Toxics Air (NATA) Toxics Cancer Risk||Lifetime risk of developing cancer from inhalation of air toxins. Reported as risk per lifetime per million people .||X||X|
|NATA Respiratory Hazard Index||Air toxics respiratory hazard index. This is the sum of hazard indices for those air toxics with reference concentrations based on respiratory endpoints, where each hazard index is the ratio of exposure concentration in the air to the health-based reference .||X||X|
|NATA Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM)||Levels of diesel particulate matter in air. Reported as micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Particulate Matter (PM2.5)||Levels of particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller in air. Reported as micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Ozone||Summer seasonal average of the maximum daily 8-hour concentration of ozone in air in parts per billion [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Traffic Proximity and Volume||Count of vehicles (average annual daily traffic) at major roads within 500 meters or close to 500 meters, divided by distance in meters [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Pesticide Use||Total pounds of selected active pesticide ingredients (filtered for hazard and volatility) used in production-agriculture per square mile, averaged over three years (2012 to 2014) .||X|
|Drinking Water Contaminants||Water tested to contain one or more contaminants listed in ‘Update to California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool’. Reported as yearly averages of chemical contaminant concentrations for each census tract .||X|
|Toxic Releases from Facilities||Toxicity-weighted concentrations of modeled chemical releases to air from facility emissions and off-site incineration (averaged over 2011 to 2013) .||X|
|Pollution Burden: Environmental Effects|
|Lead Paint Indicator||Percent of houses built before 1960, which likely contain lead paint .||X||X|
|Proximity to Risk Management Plan (RMP) Sites||Count of RMP (potential chemical accident management plans) facilities within 5 kilometers or close to 5 kilometers, divided by distance in kilometers .||X||X|
|Proximity to Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDF)||Count of TSDF (hazardous waste management facilities) within 5 kilometers or closest to 5 kilometers, divided by distance in kilometers .||X||X|
|Proximity to National Priorities List (NPL) Sites||Count of NPL/Superfund sites (polluted sites that pose a risk to human health and/or the environment) within 5 kilometers or close to 5 kilometers, divided by distance in kilometers [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Proximity to Major Direct Water Discharges||Toxic concentrations in stream segments within 500 meters, divided by distance in kilometers (km). Standards modeled after Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) .||X||X|
|Watershed Failure||Percent of each census tract’s watershed that exceeds levels of phosphorus and/or nitrogen .||X|
|Groundwater Threat||Nature and the magnitude of the threat and burden to groundwater safety posed by sites maintained in GeoTracker .||X|
|Impaired Water Bodies||Contamination of streams, rivers, and lakes by pollutants which compromise the ability to use a body of water for drinking, swimming, fishing, aquatic life protection, etc. .||X|
|Solid Waste Sites and Facilities||Solid waste landfills, composting, and recycling facilities .||X|
|Population Characteristics: Sensitive Populations|
|Asthma Emergency Discharges||Count of patients released from the hospital after being admitted for asthma or asthma-related distress .||X|
|Myocardial Infarction Discharges||Patients released from the hospital after being admitted for a heart attack or heart attack symptoms .||X||X|
|Low Birth Weight Infants||Babies born weighing less than 5.5 pounds .||X||X|
|Asthma Emergency Visits||Patients admitted to the emergency room for asthma or asthma-related distress .||X|
|Population Characteristics: Socioeconomic Factors|
|Percent Non-White||Percentage of individuals who define themselves as any race/ethnicity besides non-Hispanic White [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Percent Low-Income||Percentage of individuals whose household income in the past 12 months is less than two times below the federal poverty level [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Less than high school education||Percentage of individuals 25 and older who lack a high school diploma [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Linguistic Isolation||Percentage of households in which no one 14 years old and older speaks English "very well", or households which speak only English [35,36].||X||X||X|
|Individuals under age 5||Percentage of people under the age of 5 .||X||X|
|Individuals over age 64||Percentage of people over the age of 64 .||X||X|
|Unemployment||Percentage of the population over the age of 16 that is unemployed and eligible for the labor force. Excludes retirees, students, homemakers, institutionalized persons except prisoners, those not looking for work, and military personnel on active duty .||X||X|
|Housing Burdened Low Income Households||Percentage of households in a census tract that make less than 80% of the HUD Area Median Family Income and paying greater than 50% of their income to finance housing .||X|
|Indicator||Description||Data Source and Year|
|Pathogenic Infrastructure||Features of the built environment that increase a population’s vulnerability to chemical and non-chemical stressors leading to adverse health outcomes. For example, liquor stores, fast food restaurants, convenience stores, pawn shops, and payday lenders .||American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017|
|Salutogenic Infrastructure||Physical, economic, natural, social, and spiritual features of the environment that foster health and nourish wellness. For example, hospitals, primary care providers, grocery stores, parks, recreational facilities, and churches .||ASCE, 2017|
|Tree Canopy Coverage||Layer of leaves, branches, and stems of trees that cover the ground when viewed from above. Refers to the quantity and quality of trees in a specific geographic area .||Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR), 2017|
|Brownfields||Refer to any area that is saturated by water, either permanently or seasonally (e.g., swamps, marshes, estuaries, lakes, rivers, etc.) Can include data from monitoring sites, the location and scope of restoration efforts from Maryland’s Non-Tidal Wetland Mitigation Program and the distribution of funding provided through the Federal Clean Water Act Section 319 (h) .||USEPA, 2017|
|Wetlands and Waterways||Refer to any area that is saturated by water, either permanently or seasonally (e.g., swamps, marshes, estuaries, lakes, rivers, etc.) . Can include data from monitoring sites, the location and scope of restoration efforts from Maryland’s Non-Tidal Wetland Mitigation Program and the distribution of funding provided through the Federal Clean Water Act Section 319(h) .||USEPA, 2017|
|Health & Environmental Advocacy Groups||Studies have reported a strong, inverse correlation between social capital and health inequalities . Local health and environmental advocacy groups promote access to social capital and give voice to marginalized members of the community .||Maryland Environmental Health Network, 2017|
|Grocery Stores||Number and location of grocery stores including Giant, Costco, Whole Foods, Safeway, etc. .||North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), 2018|
|Convenience Stores||Number and location of convenience stores including CVS, 7-Eleven, and gas stations .||NAICS, 2018|
|Liquor Stores||Number and location of stores selling alcohol .||NAICS, 2018|
|Zoned Industrial Area—I1||Light intensity industrial zone. Manufacturing, assembling, or processing of refined goods .||Prince George’s (PG) County.gov|
|Zoned Industrial Area—I2||Heavy intensity industrial zones .||PG County.gov|
|Parks||Number and location of federal, state, and municipal parks. Includes national parks, local parks, playgrounds, biking and walking trails, etc. .||Protected Areas Database (PAD)-US, 2016|
|Recreational Areas||Green spaces used for recreation. Includes soccer fields, baseball fields, tennis courts, basketball courts, golf courses, etc. .||PG County Department of Parks and Recreation|
|Point Source Discharge||Any identifiable source from which pollutants are discharged. For example, a pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft. Agricultural stormwater discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture are not included in this definition .||EPA Clean Water Act (CWA), 1972|
|Major Air Pollution Sources||Any source that emits 10 tons of any of the 187 toxic air pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act, or 25 tons of a mixture of air toxins, per year. There are multiple sources of pollution such as mobile (cars, trucks, and busses), stationary, (factories, refineries, and power plants), indoor (select building materials and cleaning solvents), and naturally-occurring sources (volcanic eruptions and forest fires) .||EPA Clean Air Act (CAA), 1992|
|Bladensburg Air Pollution Minor||Any source which emits, or has the potential to emit, regulated New Source Review (NSR) pollutants in amounts less than the major source thresholds .||CAA, 1992|
|Hazardous Waste Site||Any area which is contaminated by pollutants deemed dangerous or capable of having harmful effects on human health or the environment. More specifically, any area contaminated by chemicals on the F, K, P, and U lists, found in title 40, section 261, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) .||Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 1976|
|Health Provider Shortage Area||A shortage of primary care and dental providers for the entire population or specific population groups within a defined geographic area .||Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 2016|
|Supermarkets||Any establishment which retails a general line of food, such as canned, dry and frozen foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, fresh and prepared meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, baked products and snack foods. These establishments may also retail non-food products such as household paper products, toiletries, and non-prescription drugs .||NAICS, 2012|
|Limited Supermarket Access Areas||One or more contiguous census block groups where residents must travel significantly further to reach a supermarket than the, “comparative acceptable” distance that residents in well-served areas must travel .||The Reinvestment Fund (TRF), 2013|
|EPA Superfund Sites||Any land that has been identified by the USEPA as a candidate for cleanup because of hazardous waste contamination. These sites are placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) .||The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 1980|
|Public Schools||Public schools including elementary, middle, and high schools; charter schools; special centers .||Prince George’s County Public Schools (PGCPS), 2018|
|Railroads||Main lines such as spur lines, and rail yards, mass transit rail lines such as carlines, streetcar track, monorail or other mass transit rail and special purpose rail lines such as cog rail lines, incline rail lines, and trams .||US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce, 2015|
|Features||EPA EJSCREEN||CalEnviroScreen||MD EJSCREEN|
|User-Defined Base Map Options||X|
|User-Defined Location Markers||X||X||X|
|Download Raw Data||X||X|
|Display Legislative Districts||X|
|Display County Lines||X|
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Driver, A.; Mehdizadeh, C.; Bara-Garcia, S.; Bodenreider, C.; Lewis, J.; Wilson, S. Utilization of the Maryland Environmental Justice Screening Tool: A Bladensburg, Maryland Case Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 348. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030348
Driver A, Mehdizadeh C, Bara-Garcia S, Bodenreider C, Lewis J, Wilson S. Utilization of the Maryland Environmental Justice Screening Tool: A Bladensburg, Maryland Case Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3):348. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030348Chicago/Turabian Style
Driver, Aubree, Crystal Mehdizadeh, Samuel Bara-Garcia, Coline Bodenreider, Jessica Lewis, and Sacoby Wilson. 2019. "Utilization of the Maryland Environmental Justice Screening Tool: A Bladensburg, Maryland Case Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 3: 348. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030348