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The Urban Heat Island in an Urban Context: A Case Study of Mashhad, Iran

1
Department of Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Nasr, Jalal AleAhmad, Tehran 14115-335, Iran
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad 9177948974, Iran
3
Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Nasr, Jalal AleAhmad, P.O.Box 14115-111, Tehran, Iran
4
Research and Transfer Centre “Sustainable development and Climate Change Management”, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Ulmenliet 20, D-21033 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030313
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
In this study, the spatio-temporal changes of urban heat island (UHI) in a mega city located in a semi-arid region and the relationships with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) are appraised using Landsat TM/OLI images with the help of ENVI and ArcGIS software. The results reveal that the relationships between NDBI, NDVI and land surface temperature (LST) varied by year in the study area and they are not suitable indices to study the land surface temperature in arid and semi-arid regions. The study also highlights the importance of weather conditions when appraising the relationship of these indices with land surface temperature. Overall, it can be concluded that LST in arid and steppe regions is most influenced by barren soil. As a result, built-up areas surrounded by soil or bituminous asphalt experience higher land surface temperatures compared to densely built-up areas. Therefore, apart from setting-up more green areas, an effective way to reduce the intensity of UHI in these regions is to develop the use of cool and smart pavements. The experiences from this paper may be of use to cities, many of which are struggling to adapt to a changing climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban heat island; climate change; arid and semi-arid regions; land cover urban heat island; climate change; arid and semi-arid regions; land cover
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MDPI and ACS Style

Naserikia, M.; Asadi Shamsabadi, E.; Rafieian, M.; Leal Filho, W. The Urban Heat Island in an Urban Context: A Case Study of Mashhad, Iran. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030313

AMA Style

Naserikia M, Asadi Shamsabadi E, Rafieian M, Leal Filho W. The Urban Heat Island in an Urban Context: A Case Study of Mashhad, Iran. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3):313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naserikia, Marzie; Asadi Shamsabadi, Elyas; Rafieian, Mojtaba; Leal Filho, Walter. 2019. "The Urban Heat Island in an Urban Context: A Case Study of Mashhad, Iran" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 3: 313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030313

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