Next Article in Journal
Application of the JA-CHRODIS Integrated Multimorbidity Care Model (IMCM) to a Case Study of Diabetes and Mental Health
Previous Article in Journal
Psychosocial Stress, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity during Pregnancy among Canadian Women: Relationships in a Diverse Cohort and a Nationwide Sample
Open AccessHypothesis

A Hypothesis and Evidence That Mercury May be an Etiological Factor in Alzheimer’s Disease

Rocky Mountain Research Institute, 9435 Olsen Court, Wellington, CO 80549, USA
Environmental Medicine, 78467 Konstanze, Germany
Memorial Hospital, Colorado Springs, CO 80549 (Retired), USA
European Institute for Physical Therapy and Balneology, Stadtsr 7, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany
Department of Psychology, University Witten-Herdecke, 58455 Witten, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5152;
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 5 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 17 December 2019
Mercury is one of the most toxic elements and causes a multitude of health problems. It is ten times more toxic to neurons than lead. This study was created to determine if mercury could be causing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by cross referencing the effects of mercury with 70 factors associated with AD. The results found that all these factors could be attributed to mercury. The hallmark changes in AD include plaques, beta amyloid protein, neurofibrillary tangles, phosphorylated tau protein, and memory loss—all changes that can be caused by mercury. Neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, and norepinephrine are inhibited in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, with the same inhibition occurring in mercury toxicity. Enzyme dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer’s disease include BACE 1, gamma secretase, cyclooxygenase-2, cytochrome-c-oxidase, protein kinases, monoamine oxidase, nitric oxide synthetase, acetyl choline transferase, and caspases, all which can be explained by mercury toxicity. Immune and inflammatory responses seen in patients with Alzheimer’s disease also occur when cells are exposed to mercury, including complement activation, cytokine expression, production of glial fibrillary acid protein antibodies and interleukin-1, transforming growth factor, beta 2 microglobulins, and phosphodiesterase 4 stimulation. Genetic factors in patients with Alzheimer’s disease are also associated with mercury. Apolipoprotein E 4 allele increases the toxicity of mercury. Mercury can inhibit DNA synthesis in the hippocampus, and has been associated with genetic mutations of presenilin 1 and 2, found in AD. The abnormalities of minerals and vitamins, specifically aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium, zinc, and vitamins B1, B12, E, and C, that occur in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, also occur in mercury toxicity. Aluminum has been found to increase mercury’s toxicity. Likewise, similar biochemical factors in AD are affected by mercury, including changes in blood levels of homocysteine, arachidonic acid, DHEA sulfate, glutathione, hydrogen peroxide, glycosamine glycans, acetyl-L carnitine, melatonin, and HDL. Other factors seen in Alzheimer’s disease, such as increased platelet activation, poor odor identification, hypertension, depression, increased incidences of herpes virus and chlamydia infections, also occur in mercury exposure. In addition, patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease exhibit higher levels of brain mercury, blood mercury, and tissue mercury in some studies. The greatest exogenous sources of brain mercury come from dental amalgams. Conclusion: This review of the literature strongly suggests that mercury can be a cause of Alzheimer’s Disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; mercury; etiology Alzheimer’s disease; mercury; etiology
MDPI and ACS Style

Siblerud, R.; Mutter, J.; Moore, E.; Naumann, J.; Walach, H. A Hypothesis and Evidence That Mercury May be an Etiological Factor in Alzheimer’s Disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 5152.

AMA Style

Siblerud R, Mutter J, Moore E, Naumann J, Walach H. A Hypothesis and Evidence That Mercury May be an Etiological Factor in Alzheimer’s Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(24):5152.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siblerud, Robert; Mutter, Joachim; Moore, Elaine; Naumann, Johannes; Walach, Harald. 2019. "A Hypothesis and Evidence That Mercury May be an Etiological Factor in Alzheimer’s Disease" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 24: 5152.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop