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Open AccessArticle

PEN-13: A New Generic 13-Item Questionnaire for Measuring Patient Enablement (German Version)

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Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine and Health Services Research, University Hospital Tübingen, Wilhelmstraße 27, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
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PMV forschungsgruppe, University of Cologne, Herderstraße 52, 50391 Cologne, Germany
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OptiMedis AG, Burchardstraße 17, 20095 Hamburg, Germany
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London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London WC1E 7HT, UK
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Division of General Practice, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79910 Freiburg, Germany
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Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biometry, University Hospital Tübingen, Silcherstr. 5, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234867
Received: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
Background: The purpose of our study was to develop and psychometrically test a German-language survey instrument that measures patient enablement generically and in greater detail than previous instruments. Methods: A multidisciplinary team developed 13 items to capture individual aspects of patient enablement (PEN-13). A pre-test with 26 subjects was followed by a random sample survey of N = 1168 subjects. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted in a random split-half sample of the data to explore PEN-13’s factor structure; a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in the validation sample. The internal consistency of the factors was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha, PEN-13’s construct validity was checked by means of additional hypothesis testing. Results: The two factors self-management and patient-practitioner interaction, detected in the exploratory analysis, were confirmed with a few modifications in the confirmatory factor analysis, with the comparative fit index (CFI) amounting to 0.903. The Cronbach’s alpha values of those two factors amounted to α = 0.90 and α = 0.82, respectively. The correlations of the PEN-13 score with the ’general self-efficacy’ and ’health literacy’ (HLS-EU-Q16) scores further confirmed its construct validity; the respective correlation coefficients amounted to 0.57 and 0.60. Conclusion: The German version of the survey instrument Patient Enablement Scale—13 items (PEN-13) shows acceptable psychometric properties. Practical implications: PEN-13 seems particularly suitable for health services research purposes. We recommend checking the results in another sample as well as evaluating its responsiveness to enablement-enhancing interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: standardized questionnaire; validation; patient enablement; patient empowerment; patient activation standardized questionnaire; validation; patient enablement; patient empowerment; patient activation
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Siegel, A.; Ehmann, A.T.; Meyer, I.; Gröne, O.; Niebling, W.; Martus, P.; Rieger, M.A. PEN-13: A New Generic 13-Item Questionnaire for Measuring Patient Enablement (German Version). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4867.

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