Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Assessment of the Efficacy of a Macrocyclic Chelator in Reversing Methylmercury Toxicity
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Feeding Substrates on the Presence of Toxic Metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, As, Hg) in Larvae of Tenebrio molitor: Risk Assessment for Human Consumption
Open AccessArticle

Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women Exposed to Fine Air Pollutants and Acidic Gases: A Nationwide Cohort Analysis

1
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, No. 2, Yuh-Der Road, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
2
Division of Nephrology and Kidney Institute, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3
Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4
College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5
Department of Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
6
Department of Family Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
7
Department of Chest Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
8
Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
9
Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan
10
Center of Augmented Intelligence in Healthcare, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234816
Received: 1 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Background: Air pollutants cause endocrine disorders and hormone disruption. The relationship between air pollutants and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) must be carefully investigated using a nationwide cohort. Methods: Data were extracted from two nationwide databases, namely Longitudinal Health Insurance Database and Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Database, and analyzed. The study considered a range of data that began on 1 January 2000 and ended on 31 December 2013. Women diagnosed with PCOS were excluded. From the residential data, the study assessed the daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and PM2.5 the women were exposed to. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to assess PCOS risk. Results: In total, 91,803 women were enrolled in this study; of those women, 2072 developed PCOS after 12 years of follow-up. The mean daily concentrations of SO2, NOx, NO, NO2, and PM2.5 women were exposed to were 4.25 (±1.44) ppb, 20.41 (±6.65) ppb, 9.25 (±4.36) ppb, 20.99 (±3.33) ppb, and 30.85 (±6.16) μg/m3, respectively. Compared with the first-quartile levels of exposure, the fourth-quartile levels of exposure to SO2, NOx, NO, NO2, and PM2.5 increased PCOS risk by 10.31 times (95% CI = 8.35–12.7), 3.37 times (95% CI = 2.86–3.96), 4.18 times (95% CI = 3.57–4.89), 7.46 times (95% CI = 6.38–8.71), and 3.56 times (95% CI = 3.05–4.15), respectively. Conclusion: Women exposed to a high concentrations of air pollutants, namely SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, and PM2.5, had a high PCOS risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollutants; polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); Taiwan air quality; monitoring database air pollutants; polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); Taiwan air quality; monitoring database
MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, S.-Y.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chang, C. .-Y.; Lin, C.-C.; Hsu, W.-H.; Ju, S.-W.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Kao, C.-H. Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women Exposed to Fine Air Pollutants and Acidic Gases: A Nationwide Cohort Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4816.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop