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The Associations between the Duration of Folic Acid Supplementation, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and Adverse Birth Outcomes based on a Birth Cohort

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Kaifu District, Changsha 410078, Hunan, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224511
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 10 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
This study aimed to examine the associations between the duration of folic acid (FA) supplementation, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and adverse birth outcomes. A total of 950 mother-offspring pairs participated in the cohort study during 2015 in Changsha, China. The data were collected through home visits and perfected by maternal and child healthcare handbooks. Generalized linear models and stratified analyses were used for statistical analyses. The incidence of GDM in our cohort was 10.2%. FA supplementation for ≥3 months before pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of GDM (adjusted relative risk (aRR): 1.72; 95% CI: 1.17–2.53) and decreased risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth (aRR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18–0.88). In the group of FA supplementation for ≥3 months during pregnancy, GDM was associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery (aRR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06–1.75) and macrosomia (aRR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.06, 4.20), but the aRRs were lower than the RRMH 1.53 (95% CI: 1.01–2.34) and 2.43 (95% CI: 1.27–4.66). Our study suggested that the longer duration of FA supplementation before pregnancy might increase the risk of GDM, but decrease the risk of SGA birth. Longer duration of FA supplementation during pregnancy had beneficial effects on birth outcomes in women with GDM. Further studies should consider a larger sample size to confirm these findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: folic acid; gestational diabetes mellitus; cesarean delivery; macrosomia folic acid; gestational diabetes mellitus; cesarean delivery; macrosomia
MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, G.; Sha, T.; Gao, X.; He, Q.; Wu, X.; Tian, Q.; Yang, F.; Tang, C.; Wu, X.; Xie, Q.; Yan, Y. The Associations between the Duration of Folic Acid Supplementation, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and Adverse Birth Outcomes based on a Birth Cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4511.

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