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Risk Factors for Depression in Empty Nesters: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Coastal City of Zhejiang Province and China

1
National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
2
Wenling Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenling 317500, China
3
Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214106
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
The elderly are susceptible to depression, especially empty nesters. This study investigated the risk factors associated with depression in empty nesters. The participants were selected via multi-stage random cluster sampling. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The questionnaire surveyed demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, behaviors and lifestyles, negative life experiences, social support, self-care ability, etc. Chronic health conditions, such as being overweight/obese, smoking cessation, cancer, and chronic pain, as well as negative life experiences, such as the death of a loved one and financial loss, increased the risk of depression in empty nesters. In addition, the incapability of performing self-care also increased the risk of depression in empty nesters. The prevalence of depression in empty nesters was high. Being overweight/obese, cancer, chronic pain, smoking cessation, the death of a loved one, financial loss, and the incapability to deliver self-care were risk factors for depression in empty nesters. It is recommended that comprehensive measures be taken to enhance health interventions for this population, including encouraging a proper diet and physical activity for weight control, providing psychological counseling after negative life experiences, and teaching correct methods of smoking cessation. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk factors; depression; empty nesters risk factors; depression; empty nesters
MDPI and ACS Style

Yao, Y.; Ding, G.; Wang, L.; Jin, Y.; Lin, J.; Zhai, Y.; Zhang, T.; He, F.; Fan, W. Risk Factors for Depression in Empty Nesters: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Coastal City of Zhejiang Province and China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4106. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214106

AMA Style

Yao Y, Ding G, Wang L, Jin Y, Lin J, Zhai Y, Zhang T, He F, Fan W. Risk Factors for Depression in Empty Nesters: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Coastal City of Zhejiang Province and China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(21):4106. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yao, Yecheng, Gangqiang Ding, Liaoliao Wang, Ye Jin, Jianwei Lin, Yujia Zhai, Tao Zhang, Fan He, and Weigang Fan. 2019. "Risk Factors for Depression in Empty Nesters: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Coastal City of Zhejiang Province and China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 21: 4106. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214106

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