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U.S. Adolescent and Adult Women’s Experiences Accessing and Using Toilets in Schools, Workplaces, and Public Spaces: A Multi-Site Focus Group Study to Inform Future Research in Bladder Health
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Toileting Behaviors Related to Urination in Women: A Scoping Review

1
School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
School of Nursing, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204000
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 19 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bladder Health in Women)
This scoping review explores the state of science regarding women’s toileting behaviors, gaps in knowledge, and areas for future research. Online databases were searched to identify papers published in English between January 2010 through July 2019; the search identified 25 articles. The Toileting Behaviors–Women’s Elimination Behaviors scale has been published in four validated language versions and used in 17 of the 25 studies. The most frequent behaviors include concern about public toilet cleanliness, delaying urination when busy or away from home, and using different toileting postures at and away from home. Determinants of toileting behaviors include environmental factors, chronic health conditions, and cognitive/psychological factors. Associations were found between toileting behaviors and lower urinary tract symptoms and between toileting postures and uroflowmetric parameters and post-void residual volume. Strategies that address modifiable determinants of toileting behaviors should be developed and tested in future research. Furthermore, little is known about the toileting behaviors and bladder health in older women and women from developing countries. Rigorous studies are needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms of toileting behaviors, the nature of associations between toileting behaviors and lower urinary tract symptoms, and effects of the environment on women’s toileting behaviors. View Full-Text
Keywords: female; urination; lower urinary tract symptoms; urinary bladder; posture female; urination; lower urinary tract symptoms; urinary bladder; posture
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Wu, C.; Xue, K.; Palmer, M.H. Toileting Behaviors Related to Urination in Women: A Scoping Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4000.

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