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Article

Heart Rate Variability and Performance of Commercial Airline Pilots during Flight Simulations

1
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
2
Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020237
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
Pilots undergo a variety of stressors that may affect their performance during all phases of flight. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been considered as a reliable indicator of the parasympathetic and sympathetic activities of human autonomic nervous system, which can be used to characterize the sympathetic stress response of pilots during flight. In this study, thirty active commercial airline pilots were recruited to fly three flight segments in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-certified A320 flight simulator with each segment at a different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the flight deck. The pilots performed a series of maneuvers of varying difficulty, and their performance was evaluated by FAA designated pilot examiners. The HRV metrics (SDNN, RMSSD and LF/HF ratio) of each pilot both before and during flight simulations were measured with a Movisens EcgMove3 sensor. The average SDNN, RMSSD and LF/HF ratio of the pilots during flight simulations were 34.1 ± 12.7 ms, 23.8 ± 10.2 ms and 5.7 ± 2.8 respectively. Decreased HRV was associated with aging, obesity and performing difficult maneuvers. Both CO2 exposure and HRV had an independent effect on the pilot performance, while their interaction was not significant. The generalized additive mixed effect model results showed that a pilot performed better on a maneuver when his stress response was lower, as indicated by higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower LF/HF ratio. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in SDNN (21.97 ms) and RMSSD (16.00 ms) and an IQR decrease in LF/HF ratio (4.69) was associated with an increase in the odds of passing a maneuver by 37%, 22% and 20%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate variability; pilot; carbon dioxide; stress; flight maneuver heart rate variability; pilot; carbon dioxide; stress; flight maneuver
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, X.; MacNaughton, P.; Cadet, L.R.; Cedeno-Laurent, J.G.; Flanigan, S.; Vallarino, J.; Donnelly-McLay, D.; Christiani, D.C.; Spengler, J.D.; Allen, J.G. Heart Rate Variability and Performance of Commercial Airline Pilots during Flight Simulations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020237

AMA Style

Cao X, MacNaughton P, Cadet LR, Cedeno-Laurent JG, Flanigan S, Vallarino J, Donnelly-McLay D, Christiani DC, Spengler JD, Allen JG. Heart Rate Variability and Performance of Commercial Airline Pilots during Flight Simulations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(2):237. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020237

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cao, Xiaodong, Piers MacNaughton, Leslie R. Cadet, Jose G. Cedeno-Laurent, Skye Flanigan, Jose Vallarino, Deborah Donnelly-McLay, David C. Christiani, John D. Spengler, and Joseph G. Allen. 2019. "Heart Rate Variability and Performance of Commercial Airline Pilots during Flight Simulations" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 2: 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020237

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