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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020188

Crude Oil Degrading Fingerprint and the Overexpression of Oxidase and Invasive Genes for n-hexadecane and Crude Oil Degradation in the Acinetobacter pittii H9-3 Strain

1
College of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin, 150025, China
2
College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China
3
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guizhou, 550003, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy)
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Abstract

A crude oil-degrading bacterium named strain H9-3 was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil in the Northeastern area of China. Based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain H9-3 is affiliated to Acinetobacter pittii in the group of Gammaproteobacteria. The strain was efficient in removing 36.8% of the initial 10 g·L - 1 of crude oil within 21 days. GC-MS was performed and a preference was shown for n-C10, n-C11, i-C14, i-C17, i-C34, n-C12, n-C13, n-C14, n-C27, n-C32 and i-C13, over n-C16, n-C18–C22, n-C24–n-C31, and n-C36. This can be regarded as the specific fingerprint for crude oil degradation by strain H9-3 of Acinetobacter pittii. In addition to crude oil, it was shown that soybean oil and phenols can be utilized as carbon sources by strain H9-3. It was also shown that aniline and α -naphthol cannot be utilized for growth, but they can be tolerated by strain H9-3. Methylbenzene was neither utilized nor tolerated by strain H9-3. Although n-hexadecane was not preferentially consumed by strain H9-3, during culture with crude oil, it could be utilized for growth when it is the sole carbon source. The degradation of some branched alkanes (i-C14, i-C17 and i-C34) and the preferential degradation of crude oil over phenols could be used as a reference for distinguishing A. pittii from A. calcoaceticus. The difference in gene expression was very significant and was induced by diverse carbon sources, as shown in the qRT-PCR results. The oxidation and adhesion events occurred at high frequency during alkane degration by Acinetobacter pittii strain H9-3 cells.
Keywords: crude oil; GC-MS; fingerprints; biodegradation; Acinetobacter pittii. crude oil; GC-MS; fingerprints; biodegradation; Acinetobacter pittii.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, Y.; Wang, Q.; Liu, L. Crude Oil Degrading Fingerprint and the Overexpression of Oxidase and Invasive Genes for n-hexadecane and Crude Oil Degradation in the Acinetobacter pittii H9-3 Strain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 188.

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