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Open AccessArticle

Kinetic Analysis of Water Fitness Exercises: Contributions for Strength Development

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Faculty of Sports Science and Physical Education, University of Coimbra, 3040-256 Coimbra, Portugal
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Research Unit for Sport and Physical Activity, CIDAF, 3040-256 Coimbra, Portugal
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Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
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Research Center in Sport, Health and Human Development, CIDESD, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Department of Physical Education & Sports Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616, Singapore
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Department of Sports Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, 5300-252 Bragança, Portugal
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Department of Sports Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Guarda, 6300-559 Guarda, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193784
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 October 2019 / Published: 8 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
The evaluation of propulsive forces in water allows the selection of the most appropriate strategies to develop strength during water fitness sessions. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to analyze the rate of force production; (ii) to analyze the rate of force variation; and (iii) to compare limbs’ symmetry in two water fitness exercises. Twenty-two young health subjects (age: 21.23 ± 1.51 years old, body mass: 67.04 ± 9.31 kg, and height: 166.36 ± 8.01 cm) performed incremental protocols of horizontal adduction (HA) and rocking horse (RHadd), from 105 until 150 b·min−1. Data acquisition required an isokinetic dynamometer and a differential pressure system that allowed the assessment of (a) isometric peak force of dominant upper limb (IsometricFD); (b) propulsive peak force of dominant upper limb (PropulsiveFD); and (c) propulsive peak force of nondominant upper limb (PropulsiveFND). Significant differences were found in the rate of force production (RateFD) between the majority cadences in both exercises. The RateFD reached ~68% of the force in dry-land conditions, and lower cadences promoted a higher rate of force variation (ΔForce). Most actions were asymmetric, except for the HA at 135 b·min−1. In conclusion, the musical cadence of 135 b·min−1 seems to elicit a desired rate of force production with a symmetric motion in both exercises. View Full-Text
Keywords: water exercise; propulsive force; isometric force; asymmetries; cadence water exercise; propulsive force; isometric force; asymmetries; cadence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santos, C.C.; Rama, L.M.; Marinho, D.A.; Barbosa, T.M.; Costa, M.J. Kinetic Analysis of Water Fitness Exercises: Contributions for Strength Development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3784.

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