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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Wildfire Smoke on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Colorado, 2007–2015

1
Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
2
Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, CO 80113, USA
3
Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
4
Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics and Department of Biomedical Research, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193720
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 28 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Women's Health)
Colorado is regularly impacted by long-range transport of wildfire smoke from upwind regions. This smoke is a major source of ambient PM2.5. Maternal exposure to total PM2.5 during pregnancy has been linked to decreased birth weight and other adverse outcomes, although the impact of wildfire smoke contribution has only recently been investigated. The objective of this study was to estimate associations between adverse pregnancy outcomes and ambient wildfire smoke PM2.5. Wildfire smoke PM2.5 exposures were estimated using a previously published method incorporating ground-based monitors and remote sensing data. Logistic regression models stratified by ZIP code and mixed models with random intercept by ZIP code were used to test for associations. The primary outcomes of interest were preterm birth and birth weight. Secondary outcomes included gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, neonatal intensive care unit admission, assisted ventilation, small for gestational age, and low birth weight. Exposure to wildfire smoke PM2.5 over the full gestation and during the second trimester were positively associated with pre-term birth (OR = 1.076 (μg/m3)−1 [95% CI = 1.016, 1.139; p = 0.013] and 1.132 (μg/m3)−1 [95% CI = 1.088, 1.178]; p < 0.0001, respectively), while exposure during the first trimester was associated with decreased birth weight (−5.7 g/(μg/m3) [95% CI: −11.1, −0.4; p = 0.036]). Secondary outcomes were mixed. View Full-Text
Keywords: wildfire smoke; PM2.5; Colorado; pre-term birth; birth weight; gestational diabetes; gestational hypertension; small for gestational age; assisted ventilation; NICU admission wildfire smoke; PM2.5; Colorado; pre-term birth; birth weight; gestational diabetes; gestational hypertension; small for gestational age; assisted ventilation; NICU admission
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Abdo, M.; Ward, I.; O’Dell, K.; Ford, B.; Pierce, J.R.; Fischer, E.V.; Crooks, J.L. Impact of Wildfire Smoke on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Colorado, 2007–2015. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3720.

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