Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Potential Risks Associated with Urban Stormwater Quality for Managed Aquifer Recharge
Previous Article in Journal
Priority Setting for the Management of Chemicals Using the Globally Harmonized System and Multivariate Analysis: Use of the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System
Open AccessArticle

A Comparative Study on the Routing Problem of Electric and Fuel Vehicles Considering Carbon Trading

by Wenzhu Liao 1,*, Lin Liu 2 and Jiazhuo Fu 2
1
School of Management Science and Real Estate, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
2
College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173120
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 20 August 2019 / Published: 27 August 2019
In order to explore the impact of using electric vehicles on the cost and environment of logistics enterprises, this paper studies the optimization of vehicle routing problems with the consideration of carbon trading policies. Both the electric vehicle routing model and the traditional fuel vehicle routing model are constructed aiming at minimizing the total costs, which includes the fixed costs of vehicles, depreciation costs, penalty costs for violating customer time window, energy costs and carbon trading costs. Then a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed to address these two models, the advantages of greedy algorithm and random full permutation are combined to set the initial population, at the same time, the crossover operation is improved to retain the excellent gene fragments effectively and the hill climbing algorithm is embedded to enhance the local search ability of HGA. Furthermore, a case data is used with HGA to carry out computational experiments in these two models and the results indicate that first using electric vehicles for distribution can indeed reduce the carbon emissions, but results in a low customer satisfaction compared with using fuel vehicles. Besides, the battery capacity and charge rate have a great influence on total costs of using electric vehicles. Second, carbon price plays an important role in the transformation of logistics companies. As the carbon price changes, the total costs, carbon trading costs, and carbon emissions of using electric vehicles and fuel vehicles are affected accordingly, yet the trends are different. The changes of carbon quota have nothing to do with the distribution scheme and companies’ transformation but influence the total costs of using electric and fuel vehicles for distribution, and the trends are the same. These reasonable proposals can support the government on carbon trading policy, and also the logistics companies on dealing the relationship between economic and social benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle; routing problem; hybrid genetic algorithm; carbon prices; carbon quotas electric vehicle; routing problem; hybrid genetic algorithm; carbon prices; carbon quotas
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, W.; Liu, L.; Fu, J. A Comparative Study on the Routing Problem of Electric and Fuel Vehicles Considering Carbon Trading. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3120.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop