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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Intelligence in Children with Exotropia

by Tao Sun 1,†, Zhonghao Wang 2,†, Tao Shen 2, Jianhua Yan 2,*, Chuanbo Xie 3 and Xiuhong Li 1,*
1
Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China
2
State key laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 East Dongfeng Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Tao Sun and Zhonghao Wang contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173008
Received: 21 July 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
The effect of exotropia on the intelligence of children is unknown. This study aimed to assess the intelligence in children with exotropia and investigate the influence of the main clinical indexes of strabismus on intelligence. Eighty-four participants aged 8–12 years were enrolled, including 37 patients with exotropia (exotropia group) and 47 normal individuals (normal group). Intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), including the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ). The exotropia group had a significantly lower PRI score but a higher PSI score than the normal group. However, there was no significant difference in the WMI, VCI, and FSIQ between groups. Multiple linear regression showed that PRI–WMI and PRI–PSI differences were significantly lower in the exotropia group. Inter-subscale correlations analysis showed that the pattern of intelligence structure was different between groups. The type of exotropia, angle of deviation, duration of symptoms, and stereoacuity had no effect on the intelligence of children with exotropia. Children with exotropia had a relatively worse performance in the perceptual reasoning skill but a better processing speed and a different pattern of intelligence structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: exotropia; intelligence; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; perceptual reasoning; processing speed exotropia; intelligence; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; perceptual reasoning; processing speed
MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, T.; Wang, Z.; Shen, T.; Yan, J.; Xie, C.; Li, X. Characterization of Intelligence in Children with Exotropia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3008.

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