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Blood Cadmium Level Is Associated with Short Progression-Free Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2952; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162952 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract

The prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is poor with disease progression. Cadmium exposure is a risk factor for NPC. We aimed to investigate the effect of cadmium exposure, by measuring cadmium level, and clinicopathologic factors on NPC disease progression and prognosis. A total of 134 NPC cases were analyzed and venous blood samples were collected. Blood cadmium level was analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Clinical data were collected at baseline for patients and tumor characteristics from medical records. Progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed during follow-up. The effect of cadmium exposure and clinical factors on PFS was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression models. Blood cadmium level was associated with history of disease and smoking history and pack-years. On Kaplan–Meier analysis, a high blood cadmium level, male sex, smoking history and increasing pack-years, as well as advanced clinical stage were all associated with short PFS. On multivariate analysis, blood cadmium level was an independent risk factor and predictor of NPC prognosis and disease progression. Cadmium exposure and related clinical factors can affect the prognosis of NPC, which merits further study to clarify. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; progression-free survival time; blood cadmium levels; clinical characteristics; survival analysis Nasopharyngeal carcinoma; progression-free survival time; blood cadmium levels; clinical characteristics; survival analysis
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Du, T.; Huang, W.; Zheng, S.; Bao, M.; Huang, Y.; Li, A.; He, M.; Wu, K. Blood Cadmium Level Is Associated with Short Progression-Free Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2952.

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